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of government to step in and fill the parent’s place. Mann noted that Massachusetts had a long tradition of being "parental in government." His friend Sears described the State as "a nourishing mother, as wise as she is beneficent. Yet, should difficulties arise, the State might become stern—as befits a ruling patriarch." (emphasis added) 1 Much light on these developments is shed by Michael Katz’s The Irony of Early School Reform and by Joel Spring’s historical writings. Both writers are recommended for a dense mine of information; both strike a good balance between the perspective supplied by their personal philosophies and reportage without allegiance to any particular dogma. 2 The decline of American agriculture was part of a movement to replicate the centralized pattern found in Britain, which had deliberately destroyed its own small farm holdings by 1800. Agriculture had been conducted on a capitalist basis in Britain since the notorious enclosure movement prompted by the growth of farming. In its first stage, peasants were displaced to make room for large-scale pasture farming. The second displacement transformed the small farmer into the "farm hand" or the factory worker. Capitalist farming was established in Britain side by side with a growing manufacturing industry which made it possible to rely on the import of foodstuffs from abroad. Freely imported food meant cheap food. Cheap food meant cheap labor. The development of factory farming in America (and Australia) provided an outlet for the investment of surplus capital at good rates of interest; hence the decline of small farming in America was hastened considerably by direct inducements from its former motherland. Although as late as 1934, 33 percent of American employment was still in agriculture (versus 7 percent in Great Britain), the curriculum of small farm, which encouraged resourcefulness, independence, and self-reliance, was fast giving way to the curriculum of government education which called for quite a different character. The Parens Patriae Powers The 1852 compulsory schooling legislation of Massachusetts represents a fundamental change in the jurisprudence of parental authority, as had the adoption act passed by the nearly identically constituted legislature just four years prior, the first formal adoption legislation anywhere on earth since the days of the Roman Empire. Acts so radical could not have passed silently into practice if fundamental changes in the status of husbands and wives, parents and children, had not already gravely damaged the prestige of the family unit. There are clear signs as far back as 1796 that elements in the new American state intended to interpose themselves in corners of the family where no European state had ever gone before. In that year, the Connecticut Superior Court, representing the purest Puritan lineage of original New England, introduced "judicial discretion" into the common law of child custody and a new conception of youthful welfare hardly seen before outside the pages of philosophy books—the notion that each child had an individual destiny, a private "welfare" independent of what happened to the rest of its family. A concept called "psychological parenthood" began to take shape, a radical notion without legal precedent that would be used down the road to support drastic forcible intervention into family life. It became one of the basic justifications offered during the period of mass immigration for a Table of Contents Page 148

compulsion law intended to put children under the thrall of so-called scientific parenting in schools. Judicial discretion in custody cases was the first salvo in a barrage of poorly understood court rulings in which American courts made law rather than interpreted it. These rulings were formalized later by elected legislatures. Rubber-stamping the fait accompli, they marked a restructuring of the framework of the family ordered by a judicial body without any public debate or consent. No precedent for such aggressive court action existed in English law. The concept lived only in the dreams and speculations of utopian writers and philosophers. The 1840 case Mercein v. People produced a stunning opinion by Connecticut’s Justice Paige—a strain of radical strong-state faith straight out of Hegel: The moment a child is born it owes allegiance to the government of the country of its birth, and is entitled to the protection of the government. As the opinion unrolled, Paige further explained "with the coming of civil society the father’s sovereign power passed to the chief or government of the nation." A part of this power was then transferred back to both parents for the convenience of the State. But their guardianship was limited to the legal duty of maintenance and education, while absolute sovereignty remained with the State. Not since John Cotton, teacher of the Boston church in the early Puritan period, had such a position been publicly asserted. Cotton, in renouncing Roger Williams, insisted on the absolute authority of magistrates in civil and religious affairs, the quintessential Anglican position. In later life he even came to uphold the power of judges over conscience and was willing to grant powers of life and death to authorities to bring about conformity. Thus did the Puritan rebellion rot from within. A few years after the Paige ruling, American courts received a second radical authorization to intervene in family matters, "the best interest of the child" test. In 1847, Judge Oakley of New York City Superior Court staked a claim that such power "is not unregulated or arbitrary" but is "governed, as far as the case will admit, by fixed rules and principles." When such fixed rules and principles were not to be found, it caused no problem either, for it was only another matter subject to court discretion. In the fifty-four-year period separating the Massachusetts compulsion school law/adoption law and the founding of Children’s Court at the beginning of the twentieth century in Chicago, the meaning of these decisions became increasingly clear. With opposition from the family-centered societies of the tidewater and hill-country South diminished by civil war, the American state assumed the parens patriae powers of old-time absolute kings, the notion of the political state as the primary father. And there were signs it intended to use those powers to synthesize the type of scientific family it wanted, for the society it wanted. To usher in the future it wanted. Table of Contents Page 149

  • Page 1 and 2:

    An Underground History of American

  • Page 3 and 4:

    Change Agents Infiltrate ..........

  • Page 5 and 6:

    The Ford System And The Kronstadt C

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    Pathology As A Natural Byproduct ..

  • Page 9 and 10:

    Bianca, You Animal, Shut Up! Prolog

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    combines, is there anything public

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    As I traveled, I discovered a unive

  • Page 15 and 16:

    He drew... the things inside that n

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    questions or on their implication;

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    and I, in a dark time when all offi

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    history, embedded in a personal ess

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    Then, too, many Americans came out

  • Page 25 and 26:

    difference between Americans and ev

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    war. [House was nine at the time.]

  • Page 29 and 30:

    fine-tuned judgments every day they

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    2nd Rule—Unceasing kindness in to

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    the philosophical split which infor

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    scientific form became the main ecc

  • Page 37 and 38:

    inventors and technicians without p

  • Page 39 and 40:

    How Hindu Schooling Came To America

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    way to awaken intellect in the lowe

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    Custer’s Last Stand in Montana ha

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    liberty. Farragut When I was a scho

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    Ben Franklin Ben Franklin was born

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    prudential matters, both private an

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    discovered some of my faults, and c

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    friend, described Washington as a y

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    school and was well on his way to i

  • Page 57 and 58:

    teaching "why it was unworthy of hi

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    more Ben Franklins or Tom Edisons c

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    1 This is the same Ellwood P. Cubbe

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    mimic the "due process" practice of

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    An Enclosure Movement For Children

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    superintendents were wise to the fa

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    state, but that was a radical contr

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    oth parents from home and deposited

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    and file of homeschoolers actually

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    mental reflection in a way schoolbo

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    Department, 80 percent of the incar

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    scores then creates the illusion th

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    spiritual longings of ordinary peop

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    molecular biology. There you have i

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    The Ideology Of The Text Looking ba

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    to represent sounds of their langua

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    arose to satisfy demand for a popul

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    point of a sharpened pencil into th

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    learning to read it was not necessa

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    The Pedagogy Of Literacy Between Ma

  • Page 97 and 98: some bit of data. The sheer luxury
  • Page 99 and 100: the total victory of whole-word rea
  • Page 101 and 102: My own motive in being there was a
  • Page 103 and 104: Such behavior provides the best exc
  • Page 105 and 106: inventor of a reading system based
  • Page 107 and 108: Hector Of The Feeble-Mind See thirt
  • Page 109 and 110: Hector Isn't The Problem The countr
  • Page 111 and 112: "The only way you can squeak throug
  • Page 113 and 114: documents were destroyed at the dis
  • Page 115 and 116: Think of this thing for the moment
  • Page 117 and 118: My own school fell victim to a poli
  • Page 119 and 120: Chapter 5 True Believers and The Un
  • Page 121 and 122: Because of the predictable greed em
  • Page 123 and 124: neighbor to the community for the f
  • Page 125 and 126: and counting sticks (much as the Ar
  • Page 127 and 128: last quarter of the nineteenth cent
  • Page 129 and 130: too seriously. From it poured an ab
  • Page 131 and 132: attitude.... Much new educational l
  • Page 133 and 134: Carnegie’s "Gospel of Wealth" ide
  • Page 135 and 136: Books give children "false ideals o
  • Page 137 and 138: other of novelist Henry James. Jame
  • Page 139 and 140: Tent-Chautauqua did a great deal to
  • Page 141 and 142: church sociables and teachers’ co
  • Page 143 and 144: Chapter 6 The Lure Of Utopia Every
  • Page 145 and 146: flagrant opposition to the dominant
  • Page 147: Producing Artificial Wants Beginnin
  • Page 151 and 152: extraordinary vision of the learned
  • Page 153 and 154: Between 1840 and 1860, male schoolt
  • Page 155 and 156: Evil, only bad attitudes, and those
  • Page 157 and 158: Rainey Harper, president of the Uni
  • Page 159 and 160: teacher can just put stuff in the s
  • Page 161 and 162: Chapter 7 The Prussian Connection P
  • Page 163 and 164: Germany, after a thousand years as
  • Page 165 and 166: Revolution, its social controls bei
  • Page 167 and 168: Under Frederick William II, Frederi
  • Page 169 and 170: lectures given by Robert Owen’s s
  • Page 171 and 172: where teaching and learning were al
  • Page 173 and 174: to create that abundance it became
  • Page 175 and 176: portraits, tapestries, giant gold-f
  • Page 177 and 178: of argument, now the Prussian conne
  • Page 179 and 180: slits in the grate like an armored
  • Page 181 and 182: would recognize the new opportunity
  • Page 183 and 184: This contradiction is not unknown a
  • Page 185 and 186: independence, knowledge, ability, c
  • Page 187 and 188: utilization—is more than offset b
  • Page 189 and 190: dangerous sciences was mostly limit
  • Page 191 and 192: The abundance of wood in the United
  • Page 193 and 194: industrialization and the demands o
  • Page 195 and 196: fort in 1832, was by 1838 a flouris
  • Page 197 and 198: chemical processes—is collected.
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    The confinement of American childre

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    Yet America had to be massified, an

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    students with serious literature, p

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    4. A fixation on maximum output. 5.

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    usiness-industrial groups, but of t

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    followed: by 1917 a bibliography of

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    The National Press Attack On Academ

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    himself is the prototypical social

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    This dinner and its implications se

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    monopolization of first the nation

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    An Everlasting Faith Fabianism was

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    These "educational missionaries" sp

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    Bobbit said Gary schools were the w

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    campaign can colonize your mind. Ev

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    contracts for materials and service

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    ole models. Old-fashioned teachers

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    Chapter 10 My Green River Each pers

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    was three. The carolers stood on a

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    An incredible vision, these things,

  • Page 237 and 238:

    the physical presence of my town ne

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    Monongahela, but there was not a si

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    has also ruined its share of victim

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    they were arguing over an abortion

  • Page 245 and 246:

    The spirit that came over Mother wh

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    "And could you now face the back of

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    every single day for an entire scho

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    who commissioned stone sculptures f

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    the steps into his subterranean wor

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    Chapter 11 The Church The thesis I

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    inferiors is a veritable manufactor

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    It was nothing short of marvelous t

  • Page 261 and 262:

    Into the center of this racial exci

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    altered the path of sexual selectio

  • Page 265 and 266:

    were seen to be clay, radical socia

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    people. It was a genuine secret soc

  • Page 269 and 270:

    Her first muckraking book, Out of W

  • Page 271 and 272:

    actively seek assistance from busin

  • Page 273 and 274:

    Chapter 12 Daughters of the Barons

  • Page 275 and 276:

    The episcopal rule of British Ameri

  • Page 277 and 278:

    Peter Cookson and Caroline Persell

  • Page 279 and 280:

    The Order of the Three Crusades, 10

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    monarchs of great Aryan houses. Abe

  • Page 283 and 284:

    followed were to call it: The right

  • Page 285 and 286:

    Unpopular Government Maine built a

  • Page 287 and 288:

    them to be bankers, financiers, par

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    Francisco, the Pacific Union; in Wa

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    eyond its immediate circle of assoc

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    gigantic aggregate of capital and i

  • Page 295 and 296:

    creation of Fabian socialism and th

  • Page 297 and 298:

    consultancies were beginning to be

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    Like much that passes for wisdom on

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    ecome any type of specialist I migh

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    This had immense influence on the s

  • Page 305 and 306:

    4 For instance, the serious problem

  • Page 307 and 308:

    of respect for the pedagogical ente

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    Thus is the student victim led to t

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    going on, selected tendrils from th

  • Page 313 and 314:

    Children were to be "loved into sub

  • Page 315 and 316:

    "New Thought Tide." Because many fe

  • Page 317 and 318:

    Margaret Sanger wrote, "the most me

  • Page 319 and 320:

    Napoleon Of Mind Science William Ja

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    disciplines from child development

  • Page 323 and 324:

    Bending The Student To Reality Twic

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    efore as the marching orders of the

  • Page 327 and 328:

    qualified to give expert opinion on

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    people’s lives, became the most i

  • Page 331 and 332:

    coming out of the Decalogue, of Jud

  • Page 333 and 334:

    day-to-day meaning to compete again

  • Page 335 and 336:

    Everson v. Board Of Education (1947

  • Page 337 and 338:

    Judaism Religion is a school of its

  • Page 339 and 340:

    The neglected genius of American Ch

  • Page 341 and 342:

    Religion And Rationality The Suprem

  • Page 343 and 344:

    mathematical value so that citizens

  • Page 345 and 346:

    physical beauty or your wealth, you

  • Page 347 and 348:

    Chapter 15 The Psychopathology Of E

  • Page 349 and 350:

    guilty, once explained at a public

  • Page 351 and 352:

    from the assault on common sense. S

  • Page 353 and 354:

    What Really Goes On School wreaks h

  • Page 355 and 356:

    Ford. The role of grades, report ca

  • Page 357 and 358:

    cause to congratulate ourselves. (e

  • Page 359 and 360:

    ehavior. Now she laughs again. I ha

  • Page 361 and 362:

    Chapter 16 The Conspiracy Against O

  • Page 363 and 364:

    conspiracy against growing up, sad

  • Page 365 and 366:

    Published in 1918 near the end of t

  • Page 367 and 368:

    short-circuit entrepreneurial energ

  • Page 369 and 370:

    managed to survive and set the Nige

  • Page 371 and 372:

    Serving The Imperial Virus Toynbee

  • Page 373 and 374:

    intelligentsia is hated and despise

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    The Release From Tutelage What kind

  • Page 377 and 378:

    close watch on three well-dispersed

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    some topical. Nominally children, t

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    2) Teacher training colleges 3) Res

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    middle-class American incomes is wo

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    to divide school politics into a ma

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    offered for selection as a Republic

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    A Quality Education The mantra of "

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    its purpose. We are left to assume

  • Page 393 and 394:

    After inspection, my architect pron

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    There is no rival hypothesis to evo

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    the decimal. Objections were overri

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    in metaphor.) The rarely encountere

  • Page 401 and 402:

    particular culture it touches is de

  • Page 403 and 404:

    Magic At Work Magic in one form or

  • Page 405 and 406:

    There is perhaps no more naked stat

  • Page 407 and 408:

    What fascinates me most is the cold

  • Page 409 and 410:

    change. I learned that from Adam Sm

  • Page 411 and 412:

    Information technology people seek

  • Page 413 and 414:

    Later we chatted with the lady in a

  • Page 415 and 416:

    compensation for those whose busine

  • Page 417 and 418:

    social insecurity is the direct leg

  • Page 419 and 420:

    assumption that is found throughout

  • Page 421 and 422:

    away. It was late, I was tired. To

  • Page 423 and 424:

    twenty-six-foot boat and no nautica

  • Page 425 and 426:

    Roland’s unique creation—a live

  • Page 427 and 428:

    General Braddock and British tradit

  • Page 429 and 430:

    Braddock’s invincible army. Their

  • Page 431 and 432:

    Nothing in human history gives us a

  • Page 433 and 434:

    Don’t let a world of funny animal

  • Page 435 and 436:

    children free, we should understand

  • Page 437 and 438:

    anything. Anyway, whatever is chose

  • Page 439 and 440:

    Epilogue Only one nation refused to

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