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associations, grant-making bodies, and national media inoculated the learning system with these ideas, and local managers grew fearful of punishment for opposition. In 1962, an NIMH-sponsored report, "The Role of Schools in Mental Health," stated unambiguously, "Education does not mean teaching people to know." (emphasis added) What then? "It means teaching them to behave as they do not behave," a clear echo of the Rockefeller Foundation’s "dream" from an earlier part of the century (See page 45). Schools were behavioral engineering plants; what remained was to convince kids and parents there was no place to hide. The report was featured at the 1962 Governor’s Conference, appearing along with a proclamation calling on all states to fund these new school programs and use every state agency to further the work. Provisions were discussed to overturn resistance on the part of parents; tough cases, it was advised, could be subjected to multiple pressures around the clock until they stopped resisting. Meanwhile, alarming statistics were circulated about the rapid growth of mental illness within society. The watershed moment when modern schooling swept all competition from the field was the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 1965 (ESEA). The Act allocated substantial federal funds to psychological and psychiatric programs in school, opening the door to a full palette of "interventions" by psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, agencies, and various specialists. All were invited to use the schoolhouse as a satellite office, in urban ghettos, as a primary office. Now it was the law. Along the way to this milestone, important way stations were reached beyond the scope of this book to list. The strand I’ve shown is only one of many in the tapestry. The psychological goals of this project and the quality of mind in back of them are caught fairly in the keynote address to the 1973 Childhood International Education Seminar in Boulder, Colorado, delivered by Harvard psychiatrist Chester M. Pierce. This quote appears to have been edited out of printed transcripts of the talk, but was reported by newspapers in actual attendance: Every child in America entering school at the age of five is mentally ill because he comes to school with certain allegiances to our founding fathers, toward our elected officials, toward his parents, toward a belief in a supernatural being, and toward the sovereignty of this nation as a separate entity. It’s up to you as teachers to make all these sick children well—by creating the international child of the future. Perhaps it’s only a fortuitous coincidence that in the ongoing psychologization of schools from1903 onwards, the single most prominent thread—the nearly universal prescription for better-ment offered by every agency, analyst, and spokesperson for mental health—has been the end of competition in every aspect of training and the substitution of cooperation and intergroup, interpersonal harmony. In utopia, everyone has a fixed place. Envy and ambition are unwelcome, at least among the common classes. The prescription should sound familiar, we’ve encountered it Table of Contents Page 324

efore as the marching orders of the Prussian volksschulen. Unfortunately we know only too well how that Pestalozzian story ended. Paying Children To Learn As it turned out, my own period of behaviorist training came back to haunt me thirty years later as garlic sausage eaten after midnight returns the next afternoon to avenge being chewed. In 1989, to my delight, I secured a substantial cash grant from a small foundation to pay kids for what heretofore they had been doing in my class for free. Does that sound like a good idea to you? I guess it did to me, I’m ashamed to say. Wouldn’t you imagine that after twenty-eight years of increasingly successful classroom practice I might have known better? But then if we were perfect, who would eat garlic sausage after midnight? The great irony is that after a long teaching career, I always made it a major point of instruction to actively teach disrespect for bribes and grades. I never gave gold stars. I never gave overt praise, because I believe without question that learning is its own reward. Nothing ever happened in my experience with kids to change my mind about that. Soaping kids, as street children called it then, always struck me as a nasty, self-serving tactic. Addicting people to praise as a motivator puts them on a slippery slope toward a lifetime of fear and exploitation, always looking for some expert to approve of them. Let me set the stage for the abandonment of my own principles. Take a large sum of money, which for dramatic purposes, I converted into fifty and one hundred dollar bills. Add the money to a limited number of kids, many of them dirt poor, some having never eaten off a tablecloth, one who was living on the street in an abandoned car. None of the victims had much experience with pocket money beyond a dollar or two. Is this the classic capitalist tension out of which a sawbuck or a C-note should produce beautiful music? Now overlook my supercilious characterization. See the kids beneath their shabby clothing and rude manners as quick, intelligent beings, more aware of connections than any child development theory knows how to explain. Here were kids already doing prodigies of real intellectual work, not what the curriculum manual called for, of course, but what I, in my willful, outlaw way had set out for them. The board of education saw a roomful of ghetto kids, but I knew better, having decided years before that the bell curve was an instrument of deceit, one rich with subleties, some of them unfathomable, but propaganda all the same. So there I was with all this money, accountable to nobody for its use but myself. Plenty for everyone. How to spend it? Using all the lore acquired long ago at Columbia’s Psychology Department, I set up reinforcement schedules to hook the kids to cash, beginning continuously—paying off at every try—then changing to periodic schedules after the victim was in the net, and finally shifting to aperiodic reinforcements so the learning would dig deep and last. >From thorough personal familiarity with each kid and a data bank to boot, I had no doubt that Table of Contents Page 325

  • Page 1 and 2:

    An Underground History of American

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    Change Agents Infiltrate ..........

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    The Ford System And The Kronstadt C

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    Pathology As A Natural Byproduct ..

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    Bianca, You Animal, Shut Up! Prolog

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    combines, is there anything public

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    As I traveled, I discovered a unive

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    He drew... the things inside that n

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    questions or on their implication;

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    and I, in a dark time when all offi

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    history, embedded in a personal ess

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    Then, too, many Americans came out

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    difference between Americans and ev

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    war. [House was nine at the time.]

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    fine-tuned judgments every day they

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    2nd Rule—Unceasing kindness in to

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    the philosophical split which infor

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    scientific form became the main ecc

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    inventors and technicians without p

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    How Hindu Schooling Came To America

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    way to awaken intellect in the lowe

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    Custer’s Last Stand in Montana ha

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    liberty. Farragut When I was a scho

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    Ben Franklin Ben Franklin was born

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    prudential matters, both private an

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    discovered some of my faults, and c

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    friend, described Washington as a y

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    school and was well on his way to i

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    teaching "why it was unworthy of hi

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    more Ben Franklins or Tom Edisons c

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    1 This is the same Ellwood P. Cubbe

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    mimic the "due process" practice of

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    An Enclosure Movement For Children

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    superintendents were wise to the fa

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    state, but that was a radical contr

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    oth parents from home and deposited

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    and file of homeschoolers actually

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    mental reflection in a way schoolbo

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    Department, 80 percent of the incar

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    scores then creates the illusion th

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    spiritual longings of ordinary peop

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    molecular biology. There you have i

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    The Ideology Of The Text Looking ba

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    to represent sounds of their langua

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    arose to satisfy demand for a popul

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    point of a sharpened pencil into th

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    learning to read it was not necessa

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    The Pedagogy Of Literacy Between Ma

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    some bit of data. The sheer luxury

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    the total victory of whole-word rea

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    My own motive in being there was a

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    Such behavior provides the best exc

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    inventor of a reading system based

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    Hector Of The Feeble-Mind See thirt

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    Hector Isn't The Problem The countr

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    "The only way you can squeak throug

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    documents were destroyed at the dis

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    Think of this thing for the moment

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    My own school fell victim to a poli

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    Chapter 5 True Believers and The Un

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    Because of the predictable greed em

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    neighbor to the community for the f

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    and counting sticks (much as the Ar

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    last quarter of the nineteenth cent

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    too seriously. From it poured an ab

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    attitude.... Much new educational l

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    Carnegie’s "Gospel of Wealth" ide

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    Books give children "false ideals o

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    other of novelist Henry James. Jame

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    Tent-Chautauqua did a great deal to

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    church sociables and teachers’ co

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    Chapter 6 The Lure Of Utopia Every

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    flagrant opposition to the dominant

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    Producing Artificial Wants Beginnin

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    compulsion law intended to put chil

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    extraordinary vision of the learned

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    Between 1840 and 1860, male schoolt

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    Evil, only bad attitudes, and those

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    Rainey Harper, president of the Uni

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    teacher can just put stuff in the s

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    Chapter 7 The Prussian Connection P

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    Germany, after a thousand years as

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    Revolution, its social controls bei

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    Under Frederick William II, Frederi

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    lectures given by Robert Owen’s s

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    where teaching and learning were al

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    to create that abundance it became

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    portraits, tapestries, giant gold-f

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    of argument, now the Prussian conne

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    slits in the grate like an armored

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    would recognize the new opportunity

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    This contradiction is not unknown a

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    independence, knowledge, ability, c

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    utilization—is more than offset b

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    dangerous sciences was mostly limit

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    The abundance of wood in the United

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    industrialization and the demands o

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    fort in 1832, was by 1838 a flouris

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    chemical processes—is collected.

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    The confinement of American childre

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    Yet America had to be massified, an

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    students with serious literature, p

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    4. A fixation on maximum output. 5.

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    usiness-industrial groups, but of t

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    followed: by 1917 a bibliography of

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    The National Press Attack On Academ

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    himself is the prototypical social

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    This dinner and its implications se

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    monopolization of first the nation

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    An Everlasting Faith Fabianism was

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    These "educational missionaries" sp

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    Bobbit said Gary schools were the w

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    campaign can colonize your mind. Ev

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    contracts for materials and service

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    ole models. Old-fashioned teachers

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    Chapter 10 My Green River Each pers

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    was three. The carolers stood on a

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    An incredible vision, these things,

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    the physical presence of my town ne

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    Monongahela, but there was not a si

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    has also ruined its share of victim

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    they were arguing over an abortion

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    The spirit that came over Mother wh

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    "And could you now face the back of

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    every single day for an entire scho

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    who commissioned stone sculptures f

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    the steps into his subterranean wor

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    Chapter 11 The Church The thesis I

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    inferiors is a veritable manufactor

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    It was nothing short of marvelous t

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    Into the center of this racial exci

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    altered the path of sexual selectio

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    were seen to be clay, radical socia

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    people. It was a genuine secret soc

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    Her first muckraking book, Out of W

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    actively seek assistance from busin

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  • Page 299 and 300: Like much that passes for wisdom on
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  • Page 305 and 306: 4 For instance, the serious problem
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  • Page 341 and 342: Religion And Rationality The Suprem
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  • Page 349 and 350: guilty, once explained at a public
  • Page 351 and 352: from the assault on common sense. S
  • Page 353 and 354: What Really Goes On School wreaks h
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  • Page 359 and 360: ehavior. Now she laughs again. I ha
  • Page 361 and 362: Chapter 16 The Conspiracy Against O
  • Page 363 and 364: conspiracy against growing up, sad
  • Page 365 and 366: Published in 1918 near the end of t
  • Page 367 and 368: short-circuit entrepreneurial energ
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  • Page 371 and 372: Serving The Imperial Virus Toynbee
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    The Release From Tutelage What kind

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    close watch on three well-dispersed

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    some topical. Nominally children, t

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    2) Teacher training colleges 3) Res

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    middle-class American incomes is wo

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    to divide school politics into a ma

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    offered for selection as a Republic

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    A Quality Education The mantra of "

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    its purpose. We are left to assume

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    After inspection, my architect pron

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    There is no rival hypothesis to evo

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    the decimal. Objections were overri

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    in metaphor.) The rarely encountere

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    particular culture it touches is de

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    Magic At Work Magic in one form or

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    There is perhaps no more naked stat

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    What fascinates me most is the cold

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    change. I learned that from Adam Sm

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    Information technology people seek

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    Later we chatted with the lady in a

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    compensation for those whose busine

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    social insecurity is the direct leg

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    assumption that is found throughout

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    away. It was late, I was tired. To

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    twenty-six-foot boat and no nautica

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    Roland’s unique creation—a live

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    General Braddock and British tradit

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    Braddock’s invincible army. Their

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    Nothing in human history gives us a

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    Don’t let a world of funny animal

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    children free, we should understand

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    anything. Anyway, whatever is chose

  • Page 439 and 440:

    Epilogue Only one nation refused to

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