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The most famous school

The most famous school in Athens was Plato’s Academy, but in its physical manifestation it had no classes or bells, was a well-mannered hangout for thinkers and seekers, a generator of good conversation and good friendship, things Plato thought lay at the core of education. Today we might call such a phenomenon a salon. Aristotle’s Lyceum was pretty much the same, although Aristotle delivered two lectures a day—a tough one in the morning for intense thinkers, a kinder, gentler version of the same in the afternoon for less ambitious minds. Attendance was optional. And the famous Gymnasium so memorable as a forge for German leadership later on was in reality only an open training ground where men sixteen to fifty were free to participate in high-quality, state-subsidized instruction in boxing, wrestling, and javelin. The idea of schooling free men in anything would have revolted Athenians. Forced training was for slaves. Among free men, learning was self-discipline, not the gift of experts. From such notions Americans derived their own academies, the French their lycees, and the Germans their gymnasium. Think of it: In Athens, instruction was unorganized even though the city-state was surrounded by enemies and its own society engaged in the difficult social experiment of sustaining a participatory democracy, extending privileges without precedent to citizens, and maintaining literary, artistic, and legislative standards which remain to this day benchmarks of human genius. For its five-hundred-year history from Homer to Aristotle, Athenian civilization was a miracle in a rude world; teachers flourished there but none was grounded in fixed buildings with regular curricula under the thumb of an intricately layered bureaucracy. There were no schools in Hellas. For the Greeks, study was its own reward. Beyond that few cared to go. The Fresco At Herculaneum Sparta, Athens’ neighbor, was a horse of a different color. Society in Sparta was organized around the concept of cradle-to-grave formal training. The whole state was a universal schoolhouse, official prescriptions for the population filled every waking minute and the family was employed as a convenience for the state. Sparta’s public political arrangements were an elaborate sham, organized nominally around an executive branch with two legislative bodies, but ultimate decision-making was in the hands of ephors, a small elite who conducted state policy among themselves. The practical aspect of imitation democracy figures strongly in the thought of later social thinkers such as Machiavelli (1532) and Hobbes (1651), as well as in minds nearer our own time who had influence on the shape of American forced schooling. Spartan ideas of management came to American consciousness through classical studies in early schooling, through churches, and also through interest in the German military state of Prussia, which consciously modeled itself after Sparta. As the nineteenth century entered its final decades American university training came to follow the Prussian/Spartan model. Service to business and the political state became the most important reason for college and university existence after 1910. No longer was college primarily about developing mind and character in the young. Instead, it was about molding those things as instruments for use by others. Here is an important clue to Table of Contents Page 32

the philosophical split which informed the foundation of modern schooling and to an important extent still does: small farmers, crafts folk, trades people, little town and city professionals, little industrialists, and older manorial interests took a part of their dream of America from democratic Athens or from republican Rome (not the Rome of the emperors); this comprised a significant proportion of ordinary America. But new urban managerial elites pointed to a future based on Spartan outlook. When the instructional system of Athens transferred to Imperial Rome, a few schools we would recognize began to appear. The familiar punishment practices of colonial America can be found anticipated vividly in the famous fresco at Herculaneum, showing a Roman schoolboy being held by two of his classmates while the master advances, carrying a long whip. Roman schools must have started discipline early in the morning for we find the poet Martial cursing a school for waking him up at cock’s crow with shouts and beatings; Horace immortalizes pedagogue Orbilius for whipping a love of old poets into him. But we shouldn’t be misled by these school references. What few schools there were in Rome were for boys of prosperous classes, and even most of these relied upon tutors, tradition, and emulation, not school. The word pedagogue is Latin for a specialized class of slave assigned to walk a student to the schoolmaster; over time the slave was given additional duties, his role was enlarged to that of drill master, a procedure memorialized in Varro’s instituit pedagogus, docet magister: in my rusty altar-boy Latin, The master creates instruction, the slave pounds it in. A key to modern schooling is this: free men were never pedagogues. And yet we often refer to the science of modern schooling as pedagogy. The unenlightened parent who innocently brings matters of concern to the pedagogue, whether that poor soul is called schoolteacher, principal, or superintendent, is usually beginning a game of frustration which will end in no fundamental change. A case of barking up the wrong tree in a dark wood where the right tree is far away and obscure. Pedagogy is social technology for winning attention and cooperation (or obedience) while strings are attached to the mind and placed in the hands of an unseen master. This may be done holistically, with smiles, music, and light-duty simulations of intellection, or it can be done harshly with rigorous drills and competitive tests. The quality of self-doubt aimed for in either case is similar. Pedagogy is a useful concept to help us unthread some of the mysteries of modern schooling. That it is increasingly vital to the social order is evinced by the quiet teacher-pay revolution that has occurred since the 1960s. As with police work (to which pedagogy bears important similarities), school pay has become relatively good, its hours of labor short, its job security first rate. Contrast this with the golden years of one-room schooling where pay was subsistence only and teachers were compelled to board around to keep body and soul together. Yet there was no shortage then of applicants and many sons of prominent Americans began their adult lives as schoolteachers. With the relative opulence of today, it would be simple to fill teaching slots with accomplished Table of Contents Page 33

  • Page 1 and 2: An Underground History of American
  • Page 3 and 4: Change Agents Infiltrate ..........
  • Page 5 and 6: The Ford System And The Kronstadt C
  • Page 7 and 8: Pathology As A Natural Byproduct ..
  • Page 9 and 10: Bianca, You Animal, Shut Up! Prolog
  • Page 11 and 12: combines, is there anything public
  • Page 13 and 14: As I traveled, I discovered a unive
  • Page 15 and 16: He drew... the things inside that n
  • Page 17 and 18: questions or on their implication;
  • Page 19 and 20: and I, in a dark time when all offi
  • Page 21 and 22: history, embedded in a personal ess
  • Page 23 and 24: Then, too, many Americans came out
  • Page 25 and 26: difference between Americans and ev
  • Page 27 and 28: war. [House was nine at the time.]
  • Page 29 and 30: fine-tuned judgments every day they
  • Page 31: 2nd Rule—Unceasing kindness in to
  • Page 35 and 36: scientific form became the main ecc
  • Page 37 and 38: inventors and technicians without p
  • Page 39 and 40: How Hindu Schooling Came To America
  • Page 41 and 42: way to awaken intellect in the lowe
  • Page 43 and 44: Custer’s Last Stand in Montana ha
  • Page 45 and 46: liberty. Farragut When I was a scho
  • Page 47 and 48: Ben Franklin Ben Franklin was born
  • Page 49 and 50: prudential matters, both private an
  • Page 51 and 52: discovered some of my faults, and c
  • Page 53 and 54: friend, described Washington as a y
  • Page 55 and 56: school and was well on his way to i
  • Page 57 and 58: teaching "why it was unworthy of hi
  • Page 59 and 60: more Ben Franklins or Tom Edisons c
  • Page 61 and 62: 1 This is the same Ellwood P. Cubbe
  • Page 63 and 64: mimic the "due process" practice of
  • Page 65 and 66: An Enclosure Movement For Children
  • Page 67 and 68: superintendents were wise to the fa
  • Page 69 and 70: state, but that was a radical contr
  • Page 71 and 72: oth parents from home and deposited
  • Page 73 and 74: and file of homeschoolers actually
  • Page 75 and 76: mental reflection in a way schoolbo
  • Page 77 and 78: Department, 80 percent of the incar
  • Page 79 and 80: scores then creates the illusion th
  • Page 81 and 82: spiritual longings of ordinary peop
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    molecular biology. There you have i

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    The Ideology Of The Text Looking ba

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    to represent sounds of their langua

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    arose to satisfy demand for a popul

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    point of a sharpened pencil into th

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    learning to read it was not necessa

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    The Pedagogy Of Literacy Between Ma

  • Page 97 and 98:

    some bit of data. The sheer luxury

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    the total victory of whole-word rea

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    My own motive in being there was a

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    Such behavior provides the best exc

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    inventor of a reading system based

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    Hector Of The Feeble-Mind See thirt

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    Hector Isn't The Problem The countr

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    "The only way you can squeak throug

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    documents were destroyed at the dis

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    Think of this thing for the moment

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    My own school fell victim to a poli

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    Chapter 5 True Believers and The Un

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    Because of the predictable greed em

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    neighbor to the community for the f

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    and counting sticks (much as the Ar

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    last quarter of the nineteenth cent

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    too seriously. From it poured an ab

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    attitude.... Much new educational l

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    Carnegie’s "Gospel of Wealth" ide

  • Page 135 and 136:

    Books give children "false ideals o

  • Page 137 and 138:

    other of novelist Henry James. Jame

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    Tent-Chautauqua did a great deal to

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    church sociables and teachers’ co

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    Chapter 6 The Lure Of Utopia Every

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    flagrant opposition to the dominant

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    Producing Artificial Wants Beginnin

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    compulsion law intended to put chil

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    extraordinary vision of the learned

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    Between 1840 and 1860, male schoolt

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    Evil, only bad attitudes, and those

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    Rainey Harper, president of the Uni

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    teacher can just put stuff in the s

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    Chapter 7 The Prussian Connection P

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    Germany, after a thousand years as

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    Revolution, its social controls bei

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    Under Frederick William II, Frederi

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    lectures given by Robert Owen’s s

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    where teaching and learning were al

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    to create that abundance it became

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    portraits, tapestries, giant gold-f

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    of argument, now the Prussian conne

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    slits in the grate like an armored

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    would recognize the new opportunity

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    This contradiction is not unknown a

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    independence, knowledge, ability, c

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    utilization—is more than offset b

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    dangerous sciences was mostly limit

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    The abundance of wood in the United

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    industrialization and the demands o

  • Page 195 and 196:

    fort in 1832, was by 1838 a flouris

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    chemical processes—is collected.

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    The confinement of American childre

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    Yet America had to be massified, an

  • Page 203 and 204:

    students with serious literature, p

  • Page 205 and 206:

    4. A fixation on maximum output. 5.

  • Page 207 and 208:

    usiness-industrial groups, but of t

  • Page 209 and 210:

    followed: by 1917 a bibliography of

  • Page 211 and 212:

    The National Press Attack On Academ

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    himself is the prototypical social

  • Page 215 and 216:

    This dinner and its implications se

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    monopolization of first the nation

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    An Everlasting Faith Fabianism was

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    These "educational missionaries" sp

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    Bobbit said Gary schools were the w

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    campaign can colonize your mind. Ev

  • Page 227 and 228:

    contracts for materials and service

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    ole models. Old-fashioned teachers

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    Chapter 10 My Green River Each pers

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    was three. The carolers stood on a

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    An incredible vision, these things,

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    the physical presence of my town ne

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    Monongahela, but there was not a si

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    has also ruined its share of victim

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    they were arguing over an abortion

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    The spirit that came over Mother wh

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    "And could you now face the back of

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    every single day for an entire scho

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    who commissioned stone sculptures f

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    the steps into his subterranean wor

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    Chapter 11 The Church The thesis I

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    inferiors is a veritable manufactor

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    It was nothing short of marvelous t

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    Into the center of this racial exci

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    altered the path of sexual selectio

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    were seen to be clay, radical socia

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    people. It was a genuine secret soc

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    Her first muckraking book, Out of W

  • Page 271 and 272:

    actively seek assistance from busin

  • Page 273 and 274:

    Chapter 12 Daughters of the Barons

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    The episcopal rule of British Ameri

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    Peter Cookson and Caroline Persell

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    The Order of the Three Crusades, 10

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    monarchs of great Aryan houses. Abe

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    followed were to call it: The right

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    Unpopular Government Maine built a

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    them to be bankers, financiers, par

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    Francisco, the Pacific Union; in Wa

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    eyond its immediate circle of assoc

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    gigantic aggregate of capital and i

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    creation of Fabian socialism and th

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    consultancies were beginning to be

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    Like much that passes for wisdom on

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    ecome any type of specialist I migh

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    This had immense influence on the s

  • Page 305 and 306:

    4 For instance, the serious problem

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    of respect for the pedagogical ente

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    Thus is the student victim led to t

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    going on, selected tendrils from th

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    Children were to be "loved into sub

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    "New Thought Tide." Because many fe

  • Page 317 and 318:

    Margaret Sanger wrote, "the most me

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    Napoleon Of Mind Science William Ja

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    disciplines from child development

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    Bending The Student To Reality Twic

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    efore as the marching orders of the

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    qualified to give expert opinion on

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    people’s lives, became the most i

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    coming out of the Decalogue, of Jud

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    day-to-day meaning to compete again

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    Everson v. Board Of Education (1947

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    Judaism Religion is a school of its

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    The neglected genius of American Ch

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    Religion And Rationality The Suprem

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    mathematical value so that citizens

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    physical beauty or your wealth, you

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    Chapter 15 The Psychopathology Of E

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    guilty, once explained at a public

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    from the assault on common sense. S

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    What Really Goes On School wreaks h

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    Ford. The role of grades, report ca

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    cause to congratulate ourselves. (e

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    ehavior. Now she laughs again. I ha

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    Chapter 16 The Conspiracy Against O

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    conspiracy against growing up, sad

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    Published in 1918 near the end of t

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    short-circuit entrepreneurial energ

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    managed to survive and set the Nige

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    Serving The Imperial Virus Toynbee

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    intelligentsia is hated and despise

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    The Release From Tutelage What kind

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    close watch on three well-dispersed

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    some topical. Nominally children, t

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    2) Teacher training colleges 3) Res

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    middle-class American incomes is wo

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    to divide school politics into a ma

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    offered for selection as a Republic

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    A Quality Education The mantra of "

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    its purpose. We are left to assume

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    After inspection, my architect pron

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    There is no rival hypothesis to evo

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    the decimal. Objections were overri

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    in metaphor.) The rarely encountere

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    particular culture it touches is de

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    Magic At Work Magic in one form or

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    There is perhaps no more naked stat

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    What fascinates me most is the cold

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    change. I learned that from Adam Sm

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    Information technology people seek

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    Later we chatted with the lady in a

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    compensation for those whose busine

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    social insecurity is the direct leg

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    assumption that is found throughout

  • Page 421 and 422:

    away. It was late, I was tired. To

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    twenty-six-foot boat and no nautica

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    Roland’s unique creation—a live

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    General Braddock and British tradit

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    Braddock’s invincible army. Their

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    Nothing in human history gives us a

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    Don’t let a world of funny animal

  • Page 435 and 436:

    children free, we should understand

  • Page 437 and 438:

    anything. Anyway, whatever is chose

  • Page 439 and 440:

    Epilogue Only one nation refused to

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