1 year ago

Climate Action 2009-2010

© Pratt & Whitney Jet

© Pratt & Whitney Jet engine technology: AT THE HEART OF AVIATION CLIMATE DISCUSSION PurePower ® PW1000G Engine. SPECIAL FEATURE 150 The aviation industry, and more specifically jet engine manufacturers, have aggressively worked for decades to make their products more fuel efficient with less noise and significantly reduced emissions. US-based Pratt & Whitney, which has been building jet engines for nearly 85 years, is nearing the assembly phase for a new family of engines that it claims is revolutionary and will ‘change everything.’ The company’s PurePower ® PW1000G engine is the first of a new class of ultra-high bypass ratio, geared turbofan aircraft gas turbine engines that set a new standard for fuel economy and all aspects of environmental performance – including significant reductions in CO 2 , NO x particulates, and noise. “Each PurePower PW1000G engine will reduce fuel consumption by 15 per cent or more and CO 2 by 1,500 tons per year at the 150 passenger size,” said Alan Epstein, Pratt & Whitney vice president, Environment and Technology. “We anticipate a market for 10,000- 20,000 engines of this size, for a total CO 2 savings of as much as 30 million tons per year.” In addition to pronounced fuel consumption and CO 2 reduction, the PurePower PW1000G engine family will be the quietest commercial aircraft engine ever built at this size and will produce the least NO x and numbers of particulates – less than 50 per cent of the NO x allowed under current standards. This is important because in addition to CO 2 , NO x is a greenhouse gas responsible for a considerable portion of the forces driving climate change. “Additional environmental benefits include improvements to local air quality through the reduction of NO x and particulates as well as a dramatic reduction in aircraft noise,” Epstein said. The reduction in noise is so significant that less than one quarter as many people on the ground will be subjected to objectionable noise-levels as is currently the case for the most modern 150 passenger aircraft. This will also help airlines reduce or eliminate takeoff and landing noise tariffs, noise-related flight curfews and will provide opportunities to use more direct flight paths. The environmental benefits touted by Pratt & Whitney are possible because of the innovative architecture embodied in the PurePower engines that represents a step change from past practice. These engines incorporate three innovative elements – a light, longlived fan; drive gear system; an ultra efficient, light weight fan and an advanced nacelle system. Each element alone could contribute about a two per cent reduction in fuel consumption if added to a conventional engine architecture. However, the combination of all three in an integrated, optimised design enables low velocity, ultra-high bypass ratios of 12 and above yield-gains of 15 per cent or more reduction in fuel consumption and thus corresponding CO 2 reduction. With all of the extraordinary benefits associated with this engine, it begs the question why other companies are not pursuing this technology. The answer is that Pratt & Whitney has invested approximately $1 billion in research over 20 years to mature the technology. Bombardier and Mitsubishi apparently recognise the benefits of this advanced technology as both have selected the PW1000G engine as the exclusive powerplant for their all new aircraft, known as the CSeries and Mitsubishi Regional Jet, respectively. Not surprisingly, the aircraft are attracting customers with environmental and economic benefits powered by this amazing engine. Enquiries For more information about the PurePower PW1000G engine, visit VISIT: WWW.CLIMATEACTIONPROGRAMME.ORG

Shipping and climate change World trade has always depended on ships to efficiently move goods and materials. Today they carry 90 per cent of world trade. Through the centuries the shipping industry has risen to many challenges to provide this vital service. The reality of man-made climate change presents shipping with another profound challenge – how to balance demand growth whilst reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. PLOTTING A COURSE TOWARDS EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS Ship engines emit CO 2 at a ratio of 3:1 per tonne of fuel consumed. A recent study by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) concludes the shipping sector collectively emits approximately 850 million tonnes of CO 2 per annum; representing approximately 2.7 per cent of the world total CO 2 and similar to land-based emissions produced by Germany or Japan. WHAT CAN BE DONE? The key to effective emissions control in the maritime sector lies with optimising reductions over the supply chain, and not just looking at the hardware of single ships. In order for this change to materialise, realistic and achievable reduction targets must be applied. Developments in slow speed two-stroke diesel engine design over the years have achieved a thermal efficiency approaching its theoretical limit. However, scope remains to improve efficiency through heat recovery, in exhaust streams and cooling water systems, as well as propeller and rudder designs. Innovative propulsion assistance concepts are being developed, including a ‘kite’ system and the development of the flettner rotor to harness wind power. Overcoming wave and water resistance increases fuel consumption. Reducing resistance through improved hull designs, ‘slippier’ hull coatings, and by introducing airflows under the vessel’s hull saves fuel. Unfortunately, these innovative solutions are only likely to deliver reductions in the range of between 15 and 30 per cent depending on the type of vessel; a result that is considerably short of the reductions expected. Revolutionary concepts for energy efficient ships of the future have been proposed but remain only concepts. Such vessels would utilise wave, solar and wind power to dramatically reduce their carbon footprint. Given that these concepts are untested, that the current world fleet is comparatively young, and a vessel’s design life is 25 years, theoretically achievable emissions reductions will not be realised for many decades. Optimising the environmental performance of a vessel requires behavioral change with ship owners, charterers and cargo owners working to achieve a common goal. This precedent is established in industry to improve safety performance where it is now accepted that making positive behavioural change delivers sustainable gains. As with other processes, such as driving, it is the manner in which hardware is operated that affects fuel consumption. Ship operators may make energy efficiency improvements to their ships and save fuel by using weather and tides to greater advantage. However, far greater reductions may be achieved by optimising the supply chain through measures such as commercial recognition of efficiency, virtual arrival, ballast passage reduction and just-in-time arrival. BRIDGING THE GAP Today’s hard truths are that the world fleet does not have measures to minimise GHG emissions incorporated into their designs, and this fleet will essentially continue to serve world trade for at least the next two decades. Modifications and efficiency measures, whilst delivering some benefits, will collectively fail to deliver significant reduction percentages. While far more efficient ships are theoretically possible, the required technology does not exist today and the research and development investment to create change has yet to be made. The industry therefore must develop a solution to bridge the 40-year gap to the ship of the future. This bridge must be through the introduction of market-based instruments (MBIs) tapping into the world’s carbon markets, which have been proven to be able to cut pollutants substantially, rapidly and cost effectively. FINISHED WITH ENGINES? The realisation of a zero carbon emissions shipping industry is in all likelihood decades beyond the horizon. However, the first step must be to set the industry an emission reduction target to seek new technology and develop long-term solutions. The need to meet public demand for GHG reduction today is imperative, and cooperation to optimise the supply chain can deliver some reductions in the short term. However, physical measures alone are not enough. The shipping industry must be given the opportunity to utilise MBIs in the form of a cap and trade scheme, so successful in land-based industry, creating reductions where they are most efficient and addressing a global problem with a global solution. Organisation Shipping Emissions Abatement and Trading (SEAaT) is a cross-industry, unique, pro-active and selffunding group, whose mission is to encourage and facilitate efficient reduction of harmful emissions to air from shipping. Formed in 2002 to raise awareness and acceptance of solutions for emissions reductions that are sustainable, cost effective and achievable, its founding sponsors are shipping and oil companies committed to exploring and implementing cost effective methods of reducing emissions. Enquiries Website: SPECIAL FEATURE 151 VISIT: WWW.CLIMATEACTIONPROGRAMME.ORG