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Climate Action 2009-2010

Coal-washing plant of

Coal-washing plant of Batán. Metro de Madrid: ADDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE SPECIAL FEATURE 156 Transportation is today one of the main sectors, along with the energy sector, that causes greenhouse gas emissions. In fact, during the last 20 years, CO 2 emissions directly related to transportation have increased in an alarming way, almost reaching the emissions of the energy sector in terms of volume. This paper assesses the positive impact on railway transport emissions as a result of the implementation of extension plans for the Metro de Madrid in Spain. RAILWAY TRANSPORT EMISSIONS Railway is the most efficient transport mode with the least CO 2 emissions per passenger/kilometre. It is also the only mode where gas emissions are expected to drop in a fastgrowing emission sector. In major cities, underground transportation plays a key role in region mobility. Metro de Madrid, as the main collective transportation system in the Madrid region, helps reduce the impact on climate change by maximising energy efficiency. Only 0.7 per cent of CO 2 emissions in the autonomous community of Madrid are produced by Metro de Madrid, which carries 42 per cent of total travellers. EXTENSION PLANS: 1995-2007 The contribution of Metro de Madrid to the environment is considered especially important if we quantify the CO 2 emissions savings obtained during the three extension plans carried out between 1995 and 2007. From 1995 to 2007 the company had to manage an increase of 1.819 million trips as a consequence of the network growth. This figure is equivalent to nearly 11,000 million trips-kilometres of extra mobility demand. The average CO 2 emissions from private cars amounted to around 0.250 kilograms of CO 2 per passenger-km while Metro de Madrid’s emissions totalled 0.065 kilograms of CO 2 /passenger-kilometres in the period considered, resulting in an emission unit saving of 0.185 kilograms of CO 2 per passenger-kilometres. This figure, applied to the extra mobility demand in the period, implies savings of two million tons of CO 2 that would have been emitted if travellers had moved around by car instead of Metro. “ Only 0.7 per cent of CO 2 emissions in the autonomous community of Madrid are produced by Metro de Madrid, which carries 42 per cent of total travellers “ VISIT: WWW.CLIMATEACTIONPROGRAMME.ORG

IMPROVEMENTS IN THE METRO DE MADRID Apart from these savings in CO 2 emissions by ‘substitution’ between modes of transport, other additional savings came directly from improvements in the Metro de Madrid network during the last three extension plans. Some measures implemented were: } Maximisation of the use of sunlight in stations Spain, thanks to its location and climate, is a country with high solar radiation, making the solar energy the most respectful with the environment. Aware of this, Metro de Madrid has developed constructive solutions that allow the use of sunlight and minimise the need for artificial light. One such solution involved the installation of large glazed accesses (temples) in trapezoidal shapes, allowing the entry of sunlight inside the station. Thus, the accesses are fully illuminated by sunlight during operating hours, reducing the need for artificial lighting. As of today, there are 62 accesses with these characteristics. This measure has been completed with the installation of photocells that detect the level of illumination generated by sunlight and regulate the use of artificial lighting systems. The annual energy savings resulting from the use of direct sunlight instead of artificial lighting during an estimated 1,800 hours per year is 171,000 kWh, which means that 65 TM CO 2 equivalent are no longer emitted annually to the atmosphere. } Tri-phosphor fluorescent tubes and electronic ballasts installation The tri-phosphor technology provides increased durability, colour and luminance resolution. Electronic ballasts have also been installed in order to provide a longer life to the luminaries and improve lighting efficiency. } Automatic night cut-off lighting circuit Generally it is used between 2:30 to 5:30pm, staying lit only in the emergency circuits. This LEC System (Light Energy Controller) provides 30 per cent savings in consumption. } Improvements in energy management in the running of trains Accumulators have been installed so that the braking energy is reused for other train starts. These modern systems based on super capacitors, absorb part of the braking energy of trains (which would be lost as heat through electric resistors) and return it to the network for later use. Also, an Automated Train Control System has been implemented, including energy-efficient criteria for train traffic management. A detailed motion simulator and a systematic generation algorithm have been developed. These, applied in line 1, show potential savings of around 10 per cent for an increase in travel time of only 0.5 per cent. } Commissioning of rolling material Together with the parallel configuration of substations and the installation of electrical energy accumulators, the commissioning of rolling material produced in 2006 a savings of 41 GWh per year, avoiding annual indirect emissions of more than 13,700 tons of CO 2 equivalent. Energy efficiency measures allow for the reduction of C0 2 . } Use of energy saving devices These were implemented in lighting systems and refurbished stairways. POSSIBLE FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS Besides all the above mentioned measures, other ideas have been proposed for new projects and facilities upgrade. These include the installation of special systems in lighting that allow substantial energy consumption reductions, or the installation of solar plants on the roofs of the buildings and warehouses which would result in a great deal of clean energy and reduced CO 2 emission into the atmosphere. These energy efficiency measures allow for the reduction of CO 2 emissions thanks to a significant reduction in electricity consumption and reflect the continuing efforts of Metro de Madrid to promote an efficient use of natural resources for maximum protection of the environment in the constant struggle against climate change. Furthermore, and taking into account the impact of Metro de Madrid on the local citizens in the metropolitan area who make almost 700 million trips every year, the company carries out periodical information campaigns in order to increase general knowledge on climate change and to promote individual actions that reduce emissions of CO 2 into the atmosphere. Enquiries Website: SPECIAL FEATURE 157 VISIT: WWW.CLIMATEACTIONPROGRAMME.ORG