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Climate Action 2009-2010

BUILT ENVIRONMENT Table:

BUILT ENVIRONMENT Table: OPL’s 10 holistic principles and Masdar’s targets. CITIES AND COUNTRIES 188 GLOBAL CHALLENGE OPL PRINCIPLE OPL GOAL SOME OF THE MAIN MASDAR TARGETS Climate change due to human- Zero Carbon Achieve net CO 2 emissions of • 100 per cent renewable energy sources induced build-up of carbon zero tonnes from operation of • Net zero tonnes of carbon release in generating dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere buildings in OPL developments the power consumed for operating the site (CO 2 released in energy from waste will be offset) • (Construction) Track embodied carbon of construction activities to offset through on-site renewable generation or Masdar-specific carbon trading scheme • (Operation) Reduction in consumption of energy in buildings of approximately 80 per cent Waste from discarded products Zero Waste Promote recycling and • Volume of construction waste generated not to and packaging create a huge eliminate waste flows to exceed 13 m 3 /100 m 2 of floor area for phase 1 of disposal challenge while landfill and for incineration project, to be reviewed following monitoring data squandering valuable resources collection for later phases. • Over 99 per cent diversion of waste from landfill by 2020 • 30 percentage waste minimisation from baseline Travel by fossil fuel based car and Sustainable Reduce reliance on fossil fuel • Transport within the city: 0 kg CO 2 /year airplane can cause climate change, Transport based transport, and achieve (reliance on Personal Rapid Transport system) air & noise pollution, and congestion major reductions of CO 2 • Percentage of land-based journeys to and from emissions from transport Masdar: 55 per cent by private car and 45 per cent by public transport by 2020 Destructive patterns of resource Local and Transform materials supply to • Track embodied carbon of construction and exploitation and use of non-local Sustainable the point where it has a net offset through on-site renewable generation or materials in construction and Materials positive impact on the specific carbon trading scheme manufacture increase environmental environment and local economy • 100 per cent timber from most environmentally harm and reduce gains to the local appropriate and/or sustainably certified sources economy Industrial agriculture produces food Local and Transform food supply to the • Ecological footprint of food consumed in shops of uncertain quality and harms local Sustainable Food point where it has a net positive and restaurants will be consistent with achieving ecosystems, while consumption of impact on the environment, overall personal consumption of 0.6 global nonlocal food imposes high local economy and peoples’ hectares/person transport impacts well-being • Minimum 75 per cent (by weight) of total food consumed by 2020 to be low environmental impact • One farm shop sourcing regional produce by phase 4 Local supplies of freshwater are Sustainable Water Achieve a positive impact on • 140 litres/person per day (37 l/p/d ‘new water’, often insufficient to meet human local water resources and supply remainder supplied from on-site recycled sources) needs due to pollution, disruption • 3.85 litres/m 2 /day (reduced to 2.35 with of hydrological cycles and greywater recycling) depletion of existing stocks Loss of biodiversity and Natural Habitats Regenerate degraded • If valuable species are identified through EIA habitats due to development and Wildlife environments and halt process, then any valuable species to be relocated in natural areas and overexploitation biodiversity loss • Budget to be agreed to invest in at least one of natural resources UAE biodiversity project by 2015 • Budget to be agreed to invest in one regional project in biocapacity to support increasing local biocapacity by 2015 Local cultural heritage is being Culture and Protect and build on local • Build the city using narrow streets for shading and lost throughout the world due to Heritage cultural heritage and diversity use wind catchers in the city for passive ventilation globalisation, resulting in a loss • Integrate renewable technologies into the cityscape of local identity and wisdom • Provide segregated waste collection facilities throughout the city • Door knocking and poster awareness raising programmes about recycling, combined with recycling infrastructure in the city Some in the industrialised world Equity and Ensure that the OPL • Everyone employed during construction and operation of live in relative poverty, while many Fair Trade community’s impact on other Masdar from day one of their employment in the developing world cannot communities is positive • Identify target project e.g. Al Ghadeer women’s project, meet their basic needs from what they produce or sell affiliated with the Red Crescent Authority. Set target for increasing capacity of that project by 100 per cent by target group compared to their current baseline by 2015 e.g. number of disadvantaged people accessed, number of outreach staff employed Rising wealth and greater health Health and Increase health and quality of • Zero emissions zone to improve health and happiness increasingly diverge, Happiness life of OPL community members • Provide walking and cycling lanes throughout the city raising questions about the true and others • Natural daylight to buildings from courtyards and streets, basis of well-being and contentment solar control glazing with daylight transmission >65 per cent • Build library and community centre • Annual celebration or event provided for all major festivals for all countries represented at Masdar • 70 per cent of residents reporting that they have a higher quality of life than where they previously lived VISIT: WWW.CLIMATEACTIONPROGRAMME.ORG

Currently under construction in Abu Dhabi, Masdar City will feature all of the modern conveniences, services and benefits of living in one of the great cities of the world, but in a carbon-neutral environment. BUILT ENVIRONMENT UNDERGROUND PRT SYSTEM The One Planet Living (OPL) vision is a world in which people everywhere can lead happy, healthy lives within their fair share of the earth’s resources and leave space for wilderness and wildlife. OPL has been developed to communicate the challenge we all face in reducing our environmental impact, and to facilitate change at local and global levels by working with partners. It is a global initiative based on 10 principles of sustainability developed by BioRegional and WWF International. Masdar’s Sustainability Action Plan (SAP) incorporates the principles to exceed the standards of OPL into Masdar’s development as it takes into account the total carbon footprint and not merely lifetime operational carbon. THE OPL APPROACH AND ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINTING Global Footprint Network and WWF’s Living Planet Report show the rate at which people are consuming natural resources and polluting the environment. Our ‘ecological footprint’, is rising rapidly. In the last 40 years our ecological footprint has increased by around 150 per cent. According to the report, overall trends in populations of wild species around the world have declined by around 30 per cent between 1970 and 2003. Human beings – especially the rich – consume and pollute more than a planet can sustain by 25 per cent. If they keep on the way they are living, they will need between three to five planets to sustain it. On the contrary, poorer countries survive below the One- Planet level. We, as environmentalists, decline both ways of living and vow to achieve OPL by enjoying resources distribution equity throughout the world. Such a way of living in the UAE, for example, gave rise to the footprint as a result of the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from different sources. To tackle this environmental problem, the UAE government has already taken several initiatives in a bid to mitigate CO 2 emissions and achieve a sustainable use of resources. On the part of throttling the emissions of gases, especially CO 2 , the government is conducting the zero flaring strategy in petroleum and petrochemical activities, looking to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as fuel for cars, and examining mass transport improvement and the metro project – all of which is in addition to implementing the green building strategy in the country. Abu Dhabi announced that it is setting a goal of seven per cent of power to come from renewable energy by 2020. Much of this will be created by the flagship Masdar initiative, with Masdar city recently having being named as the headquarters of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). Masdar city will be a home for IRENA. Ecological footprinting provides a valuable tool for measuring consumption of renewable natural resources in a way that is easy to understand and communicate. The tool enables the measuring of the environmental impacts of a process, product, community, region, organisation or an individual’s lifestyle. The methodology provides an accounting tool that represents environmental impact in terms of the area of biologically productive land required to produce a particular natural resource, absorb waste materials arising from consumption, and cope with the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the energy demands. The methodology can then be used to compare the calculated footprint with the actual amount of biologically productive land available on earth; this can tell us if individuals and populations are living within the earth’s regenerative capacity. Ecological footprinting allows calculation of the amount of biologically productive land and sea needed to support a particular lifestyle. From satellite imaging it has been estimated that the planet has a total of 12.6 billion hectares of biologically productive land and sea. Leaving 10 per cent of this land and sea for wildlife, we should then aim to live off 11.3 billion hectares as a global society. With a global population of six billion, the target should be for the average person to live within 1.8 hectares of biologically productive land, which with growing global population will need to be 1.5 hectares per person by 2020. OPL’S 10 HOLISTIC PRINCIPLES AND MASDAR’S TARGETS OPL is underpinned by the following sustainability principles. From the Masdar targets, one can discern that Masdar will either meet or even exceed these standards. CONCLUSION As illustrated, Masdar city will develop and apply innovative solutions at scale, the scale of an entire city. To address the enormous energy and environmental challenges facing the global community today, solutions must have meaningful scale. We need radical new solutions, and we need them today. CITIES AND COUNTRIES 189 VISIT: WWW.CLIMATEACTIONPROGRAMME.ORG