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Climate Action 2010-2011

SPECIAL FEATURE | State

SPECIAL FEATURE | State of Bahia Implementing climate protection measures in the State of Bahia, Brazil Bahia, one of the 26 states of the Federal Republic of Brazil, is located in the country’s northeastern region. With a territory of 567,692 km², it is larger than France or Spain. Its coastline stretches over 930km and features dunes, lowlands and mangroves. Brazil also features uplands to the southeast, semiarid vegetation, over a thousand kilometres of waterways and part of the São Francisco valley basin. Tropical weather prevails, with temperatures ranging between 19-26ºC. The state has 14 million inhabitants in 417 municipalities, with nearly four million inhabitants in its capital, Salvador. Mitigation actions in Bahia The state government, represented by its Special Environment Agency (Sema), has been implementing projects to contribute towards the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Sema has monitored the international negotiations for a climate agreement as a member of the Brazilian delegation since the COP 13 in 2007. As a member of the Work Group in the Brazilian Forum on Climate Change, Sema has helped with the preparation of the National Policy and Plan for climate change. Sema has also played an active role in the REDD and Climate Change taskforce in the Brazilian Legal Amazon States. Its activities at state level include the preparation of the State of Bahia’s Climate Change Policy under the directive of the state government’s Budget Guidelines Law of 2009, and the preparation of the state’s first GHG emissions inventory for monitoring the use of solvents in the energy and industry sectors. Sema is currently preparing the State Plan for Climate Change to start proposing further climate-change related adaptation and mitigation measures. Forest protection is a major area of work for Sema. Forest projects developed by Sema contribute to the recovery and preservation of native vegetation and reduce CO 2 emissions. Projects include Pronaf Florestal, in which the government provides technical assistance, and facilitates environmental adaptation through the donation of tree saplings to help rehabilitate degraded reserve areas. Another project – Riparian Forests | 32 | Recovery – aims to promote conservation and improve the health of riparian ecosystems, the ecosystems found along the margins and banks of rivers. It is protecting and replanting riparian forests in critical areas of the Bahia’s hydrographic basins. Floresta Bahia Global is a further project developed by Sema and aims to aid the recovery of vegetation coverage in key biomes, neutralise the carbon emissions from human activity, and develop carbon capture technologies. A GHG emissions inventory The state government of Bahia, represented by Sema, prepared the first State Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory, an initiative addressed in the state’s Climate Change Policy. Co-ordinated by the Bahia Forum on Global Climate Change and Biodiversity, this inventory is a major step in implementing Bahia’s State Plan for Climate Change. The energy sector Estimations of the GHG emissions originating from fuel burning in Bahia’s energy sector are based on data disclosed in the Bahia Energy Balance Sheets (BEEBA), published in 2008 and 2009. A ‘bottom up’ methodology was applied for estimating emissions from fossil sources. It enables the calculation of the energy sector’s GHG emissions originating from fossil fuels according to the fuel type and activity sector. The sector’s emissions and removals relate to the following GHGs: carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. However, the inventory also includes other gases commonly emitted, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and other non-methane volatile organic compounds. Although these are not considered direct GHGs, they impact on the chemical reactions in the atmosphere and therefore should also be measured and monitored. The CO 2 emissions from the burning of renewable biomass for energetic purposes were not included in the state’s total emissions as the CO 2 emitted was absorbed during the plants growth cycle. www.climateactionprogramme.org

SPECIAL FEATURE | State of Bahia Figure 1: GHG emissions by activity sector in 1990 and 2008. The energy sector inventory was developed under the disaggregation level adopted by the state’s Energy Balance Sheet of 2009. It covers the emissions from various subsectors and adheres to the structure suggested by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In 2008, Bahia’s energy sector generated GHG emissions totalling 28,555 GgCO 2 -eq (gigagrams of CO 2 equivalent), making it the state’s biggest carbon emitter, responsible for a third of total emissions. The transport and industry sectors were the next biggest polluters, responsible for 30 per cent and 20 per cent respectively. GHG emissions in Bahia have increased by over 80 per cent from 1990 levels. As shown in Figure 1, the share of total GHG emissions generated by the energy sector has increased significantly between 1990 and 2008. In 1990, the industry sector was the highest emitter, responsible for 37 per cent of total emissions in the state, while the energy sector contributed only 12 per cent. The transport sector’s emissions increased by 80 per cent over the same time period, largely due to the road and air sub-sectors. Waterways, meanwhile, have seen a sizeable drop in emissions. The industrial processes and product uses sector This sector measures the emissions from production processes that are not included in the energy sector. These emissions originate from various industrial activities. Between 1998 and 2008, CO 2 emissions in the industrial sector had increased by 9.8 per cent. In 2008, the nonmetallic minerals subsector was the highest emitter of all those in the industrial sector, responsible for over 47 per cent of emissions, followed by metallic minerals, (36.1 per cent), and the chemical industry (13.5 per cent). State of Bahia’s Climate Change Policy The bill to institute the state of Bahia’s Climate Change Policy is currently awaiting the House of Representative’s appraisal and voting. It aims to align social and economic development with climate system protection measures by: mitigating the adverse impacts of climate change; reducing the growth rate of GHG emissions while developing carbon capture and storage technologies; and defining and implementing climate adaptation measures in all Identity Territories, especially those most vulnerable to the predicted adverse effects. These goals seek to foster sustainable growth, eradicate poverty and reduce the state’s social inequalities. The proposed policy was jointly prepared by several segments of the state and civil society during discussions facilitated by the Bahia Forum on Global Climate Change and Biodiversity. It expresses the State of Bahia’s commitment to the global climate change challenge and its attempt to balance economic development with the vital climate change protection needed for present and the future generations. Bahia’s bill was submitted after the national Brazilian Climate Change Policy was instituted in December last year. It means Bahia’s bill not only reflects the environmental scenario of the State of Bahia, but is also aligned with the principals guiding the country’s national policy and the concerns of the international political agenda. They share the objective to implement key climate system protection measures while recognising the importance of continued economic growth. In addition to describing the main goals, directives and instruments of the State Climate Change Policy, the proposal paves the way for the State Plan for Climate Change, which will set concrete actions for reducing or stabilising GHG concentrations in the state. It will therefore be an important contribution towards meeting Brazil’s voluntary commitment to cut emissions by between 36.1 and 38.9 per cent by 2020, as pledged by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during the COP 15 in Copenhagen last year. Environment Secretariat of Bahia (Secretaria do Meio Ambiente da Bahia), Secretary Eugênio Spengler Tel: (71) 3115-3807 Email: secretario.sema@sema.ba.gov.br Communications Office, Journalist: Livia Lemos Tel: (71) 3115-3836 Email: livia.lemos@sema.ba.gov.br Bahia Forum on Climate Change, Responsible: Adriana Diniz Tel: (71) 3115-9803 Email: fbmc.sema@sema.ba.gov.br www.climateactionprogramme.org | 33 |