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Climate Action 2011-2012


182 good basis for the negotiations in Durban. Technical issues like emissions trading and Kyoto Protocol mechanisms are on a good track. Measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to enhance sinks resulting from anthropogenic land use, land use change and forestry activities shall continue to be available to Annex I Parties as a means to reach their quantified emission limitation and reduction objectives. Although the negotiation text represented a good way forward, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) depends on the Kyoto Protocol because it is based on legally binding targets for Annex I Parties who demanded that the Certified Emission Reductions result from the Mechanism. CDM will not make sense in the absence of the Protocol. The continuation of the flexibility mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, in particular the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), is contingent upon the establishment of quantified emission reduction commitments by Annex I Parties under the second commitment period. Technical issues like emissions trading and Kyoto Protocol mechanisms are on a good track. Under the AWG LCA the success of Durban Conference is related to the parties’ capacity to make operational the forty paragraphs on modalities and procedures or working plans contained in the Cancun Decision. Parties must work to enable the early operating status of all the institutions agreed to in Cancun, including: • The registry for nationally appropriate mitigation actions and international support; • The Adaptation Committee; • The Technology Executive Committee, Centre and Network; and • The Green Climate Fund, which must provide significant means of implementation for immediate action to tackle climate change. The importance must be stressed of ensuring an appropriate overview of the Green Climate Fund by COP, in order to ensure its adequate management and timely disbursements to developing countries. Detailed and comprehensive information on fast-start financial flows provided by developed countries should be made available officially. This is a fundamental requirement for dealing with UNFCCC’s implementation deficit regarding the financing building block under the Bali Action Plan. We are in a new context for rigorous, robust and transparent accounting of finance taking into account that a quantified commitment for finance has been established for the first time. The assessment of progress in achieving the financial targets is crucial, but the existing reporting requirements under the Convention for developed countries to report on finance must be enhanced significantly. An enhanced common reporting format for financing, as well as enhanced information on measurable, reportable and verifiable mitigation actions and corresponding support should be considered in Durban. In Durban, the discussions on measuring, reporting and verifying Annex I mitigation should be based on the development of a common accounting framework and rules, taking the rules of the Kyoto Protocol as the reference. There is a need for ensuring transparency and comparability of mitigation commitments by all developed countries. The revision of guidelines on the reporting of Annex I National Communications should cover supplementary information on achievement of quantified economy-wide emission reduction targets. The Bali Road Map suppoRTing The duRBan ouTCoMe Brazil will spare no efforts to reach an agreement on a second commitment period to the Kyoto Protocol, which is the single most important rules-based system, preserving the top-down legal structure created by the Protocol with the institutions that have been created over the past fourteen years. Aware of the fact that a second commitment period alone is not an option for some parties, progress on the Kyoto Protocol side together with progress on the UNFCCC side is crucial for the negotiation to move forward in a successful way. Achieving a comprehensive, balanced and ambitious outcome in Durban means implementing the Bali Road Map, which has been agreed based on the multilateral response to climate change in the context of sustainable development and in accordance with the provisions and principles of the Convention, in particular the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. Brazil envisages the Durban Conference as a relevant step to ensure the full, effective and sustained implementation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol, as well as a clear signal for the international community that multilateralism can and shall be reinforced. Izabella Teixeira has been Minister of the Environment, Brazil, since April 2010. Born in Brasília, Izabella Teixeira is a biologist and holds a Master’s Degree in Energy Planning and a Ph.D in Environmental Planning at COPPE/UFRJ. A civil servant at the Brazilian Environmental Agency since 1984, she is an expert in strategic environmental assessment, and has occupied different management positions at the Agency, as well as at the Ministry of the Environment and at the State Government of Rio de Janeiro. From 2007 to 2008, Izabella Teixeira was the Vice-Secretary of the Environment at the State Government of Rio de Janeiro, until she was nominated for the position of Vice-Minister of the Environment in Brazil. Esplanada dos Ministérios Bloco "B", 5 andar, sala 532, Brasilia, DF Brasil 70068-900 Tel: +55 61 2028-1416 | Fax: +55 61 2028-1983 Email:

cemig special Feature Way ahead in clean energy Cemig’s electricity comes mainly from renewable sources. And it invests further in diversification and the quality of its services, expanding its business with a focus on clean energy. In 2010, 99 per cent of the energy that Cemig generated came from renewable sources: hydroelectric power, wind power, and co-generation in projects with industry. Now in its 59th year of operation, Cemig is one of the largest and most important electricity concession holders in Brazil. It is the leader of a conglomerate of 98 companies and 15 consortia, operating in generation, transmission and distribution of electricity, and in provision of other services such as natural gas distribution, data transmission and the energy solutions offered by its energy service company. In 2010, Cemig acquired a holding in Renova Energia, a wind power generation company which also operates small hydro plants. Cemig has operations and businesses in 23 of Brazil’s states, and a transmission line in Chile. It is both Brazil’s and Latin America’s largest electricity distribution company, the third largest in electricity generation, and the second largest in transmission. It has approximately 110,000 shareholders, in 44 countries. Its share securities are traded on the stock exchanges of São Paulo, New York and Madrid. In 2010, 99 per cent of the energy that Cemig generated came from renewable sources: hydroelectric power, wind power, and co-generation in projects with industry. Important progress has been made by the group in reaffirming its commitment to climate change. In 2010, Cemig was selected for inclusion in the ICO 2 Efficient Carbon Index, organised by the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&F Bovespa) and the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES). The ICO 2 is based on the ratio of companies’ greenhouse gas emissions to their net sales revenue – showing the financial markets that Brazilian companies are preparing for a low-carbon economy. Cemig already has projects that offer large-scale electricity from new energy sources. To develop them, it has a strategy of anticipating and developing technology through partnerships with universities, public institutions and research centres, covering the whole of a project from development of the pilot operation to commercial-scale implementation. New sources Wind energy. With its connection of the country’s first wind power plant to the electricity system, Cemig was the pioneer of wind energy in Brazil. It has progressed in wind power with the acquisition of 49 per cent of a 99.6MW wind farm in Brazil’s north-east. This project avoids emissions into the atmosphere of about 146,000 tonnes of CO 2 . Cemig has also created the Wind Power Atlas of Minas Gerais, which indicates an estimated potential of 40GW of wind power generation in the state. Solar energy. Cemig is building a 3MW photovoltaic solar energy plant to be connected to the national grid, in partnership with a company in the sector – this will be one of the largest photovoltaic plants connected to the grid. Biomass. Cemig has projects for the connection of sugar and alcohol plants to its electricity system, in which electricity will be company-generated from sugar cane bagasse (a waste product in sugar production) – increasing the contribution of renewable sources to Brazil’s energy supply. Energy from landfill gas. Cemig is selling electricity generated from biogas – composed of methane and CO 2 – produced by decomposition of garbage from a landfill. With this initiative Cemig again shows the way forward in providing its clients with electricity from sustainable sources. Electric vehicles. Cemig has electric vehicles in its fleet, testing the operational and maintenance specifics of this technology, and participates in an electric vehicle R&D project. ActioNs oN climAte chANge As well as investments in alternative energy sources, Cemig offers services to improve the efficiency of energy use by its residential, commercial and industrial clients, contributing to a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2010 these services led to reductions of 71,333 MWh/year in electricity consumption, corresponding to an avoidance of emissions of 3,633 tons of CO 2 and greenhouse gases. The electricity saved is enough to supply approximately 50,000 homes. All the risks and opportunities related to climate change are listed in the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP). Tel: +55 313 506 4020 Web: 183