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Climate Action 2014-2015


RESILIENT CITIES Source: Still Pictures / UNEP million tonnes of CO 2 /yr. In the EU, fuel economy policies have seen CO 2 emissions go down from 140 g/km in 2008 to 120 g/km in 2012, giving a total reduction of 14.4 million tonnes a year in 2012 (set to grow to 54 million tonnes a year by 2020). China has introduced a fuel economy policy that has saved it close to US$5 billion from 2006 to 2011, reducing CO 2 emissions by more than 13 million tonnes. If other big south-east Asian countries – Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam – were to introduce fuel economy policies, it is estimated that this could reduce their fleet’s CO 2 emissions by 27 per cent by 2035. "Countries need to urgently adopt measures that will see a significant improvement of fuel efficiency." A GLOBAL EFFORT TO IMPROVE FUEL ECONOMY In 2009 the Global Fuel Economy Initiative (GFEI) was launched, aiming at least to double the efficiency of the global fleet from an average of 8 litres/100km (2005) to 4 litres/100km – based on IPCC and G8 targets and recommendations. The GFEI is implemented by leading global organisations – the International Energy FE Policy in Place FE Policy in Progress GFEI National Activity Figure 2. Global progress on fuel economy policy, September 2014 Source: GFEI ( 110

RESILIENT CITIES Agency, the International Transport Forum, the FIA Foundation, UC Davis University, the International Council for Clean Transportation and the UN Environment Programme. The Advisory Group of the GFEI includes the global oil and vehicles industry, major NGOs and international experts. To achieve these objectives, countries need to urgently adopt measures that will see a significant improvement of fuel efficiency. Measures successfully deployed, among others, include import regulation of old vehicles, emissions standards, fiscal measures (reducing taxes on efficient vehicles and increasing taxes on inefficient vehicles), labelling (standardised labelling indicating efficiency of cars in showrooms), removal of the oldest vehicles (rebate or ‘cash for clunkers’ schemes) and removal of fuel subsidies. GFEI supports countries in developing national fleet fuel economy baselines, and helps them set up national task forces, conduct cost-benefit analyses and develop and adopt policies that are often a mix of regulatory, financial and awareness measures. For example, in Mauritius recently a new taxation scheme has been introduced to promote more efficient vehicles. In Chile a new vehicle labelling scheme has been started, together with a vehicle carbon tax. Similar policies are under development in many other countries, including Indonesia, Kenya, Philippines, Vietnam, Ethiopia and Thailand. Many country projects include components for the introduction of zero and low emission vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. While it is "Many country projects include components for the introduction of zero and low emission vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles." estimated that for the coming decade the major emissions reduction from the global fleet needs to be achieved through improving fuel efficiency, new technologies can help make further progress; this would go beyond levelling the emissions of the global fleet and start making an overall reduction. Support to the GFEI is provided by the European Union, the Global Environment Facility, the UN Environment Programme and the FIA Foundation, among others, to the tune of nearly US$9 million. SCALING UP The world is to invest US$400 trillion buying cars and the fuels to run them from now until 2050. That is 25 times the GDP of today’s EU. It is important that these vehicles will be added in countries that promote cleaner and more efficient vehicles. The objective of the GFEI is to do exactly that – support all countries in the world adopt a clean and efficient vehicles policy. The GFEI is monitoring trends at global and national level, creating awareness, and supporting regional and national action. At the moment close to 20 country programmes are being supported in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Middle East that are developing fuel economy polices. A similar number have expressed interest to work with the GFEI. We are convinced that this will result in a critical mass and will see all countries worldwide adopt fuel economy policies. Rob de Jong is Head of the Transport Unit, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). He is a Dutch national, holding degrees in environmental engineering and environmental policy. Rob has been working for UNEP for more than 19 years, in functions related to environmental policy development and the urban environment. He has headed the Transport Unit in UNEP for the last eight years. The Division of Technology, Industry and Economics in UNEP leads UNEP’s work in areas such as climate change, energy, resource efficiency, harmful substances and hazardous waste. This includes work on improving air quality and sustainable transport. Source: Max Ahman / UNEP 111