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Corrosion Engineering Principles and Practice

Corrosion Engineering Principles and

  • Page 2 and 3: Corrosion Engineering Principles an
  • Page 4 and 5: Professional Want to learn more? We
  • Page 6 and 7: iv C o n t e n t s 4.5 Reference Ha
  • Page 8 and 9: vi C o n t e n t s 8 Corrosion by W
  • Page 10 and 11: viii C o n t e n t s 10.2.5 Example
  • Page 12 and 13: x C o n t e n t s 13.3 How Cathodic
  • Page 14 and 15: xii C o n t e n t s 15.3 Kinetic Pr
  • Page 16 and 17: xiv P r e f a c e As an educator I
  • Page 18 and 19: 2 C h a p t e r 1 With this informa
  • Page 20 and 21: 4 C h a p t e r 1 The points or nod
  • Page 22 and 23: 6 C h a p t e r 1 Corrosion Scienti
  • Page 24 and 25: 8 C h a p t e r 1 Course Name NACE
  • Page 26 and 27: 10 C h a p t e r 1 In order to choo
  • Page 28 and 29: 12 C h a p t e r 1 Physics Chemistr
  • Page 30 and 31: 14 C h a p t e r 1 2. There were ma
  • Page 33: 16 Estimated Direct Cost of Corrosi
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  • Page 38 and 39: 20 C h a p t e r 2 Sample Descripti
  • Page 40 and 41: 22 C h a p t e r 2 scale, for examp
  • Page 42 and 43: 24 C h a p t e r 2 Fe Ferritic stai
  • Page 44: 26 Uses Etchant Comments Iron & ste
  • Page 47 and 48: 28 C h a p t e r 2 (a) (a) (b) (b)
  • Page 49 and 50: 30 C h a p t e r 2 As illustrated i
  • Page 51 and 52: 32 C h a p t e r 2 Note that each a
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    36 C h a p t e r 3 FIGURE 3.1 Schem

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    38 C h a p t e r 3 sites on the met

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    40 C h a p t e r 3 mA cm -2 mm y -1

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    42 C h a p t e r 3 corrosion in aci

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    44 C h a p t e r 3 Zn 2+ Zn 2+ Zn 2

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    46 C h a p t e r 3 a large surface

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    50 C h a p t e r 4 Hi +1.11 V Lo Zi

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    52 C h a p t e r 4 Half-Reaction E

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    54 C h a p t e r 4 4.3 Nernst Equat

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    56 C h a p t e r 4 Species G 0 (298

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    58 C h a p t e r 4 for pure species

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    60 C h a p t e r 4 Although these e

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    62 C h a p t e r 4 By considering t

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    Species G 0 (298 K) (J mol -1 ) S 0

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    66 C h a p t e r 4 Name DG 0 reacta

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    68 C h a p t e r 4 FIGURE 4.4 Schem

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    70 C h a p t e r 4 Calculation Exam

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    72 C h a p t e r 4 FIGURE 4.7 Exper

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    74 C h a p t e r 4 FIGURE 4.9 Comme

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    76 C h a p t e r 4 2 Potential (V v

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    78 C h a p t e r 4 2 1.5 b 1 Potent

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    80 C h a p t e r 4 2 Potential (V v

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    82 C h a p t e r 4 Equilibria 2 e

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    84 C h a p t e r 4 2 1.5 1 b Fe 3+

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    86 C h a p t e r 5 where h act is t

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    88 C h a p t e r 5 -638 mV Potentia

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    90 C h a p t e r 5 3 Log (|Current

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    92 C h a p t e r 5 2e - e - Fe 2+ F

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    94 C h a p t e r 5 This is represen

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    96 C h a p t e r 5 Other geometries

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    98 C h a p t e r 5 (a) FIGURE 5.10

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    100 C h a p t e r 5 The first set o

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    102 C h a p t e r 5 Contact termina

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    104 C h a p t e r 5 0 Fe → Fe 2+

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    106 C h a p t e r 5 that is, pH of

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    108 C h a p t e r 5 e) An electrica

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    110 C h a p t e r 5 A small amount

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    112 C h a p t e r 5 Coupon immersio

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    114 C h a p t e r 5 FIGURE 5.23 Com

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    116 C h a p t e r 5 The inhibitor e

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    118 C h a p t e r 5 80000 R p Q R s

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    120 C h a p t e r 5 Complications w

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    122 C h a p t e r 5 • Reaction ra

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    R s (R s + R p ) 124 C h a p t e r

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    126 C h a p t e r 5 1.E + 10 1.E +

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    128 C h a p t e r 5 Visual examinat

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    130 C h a p t e r 5 10 8 Current at

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    132 C h a p t e r 5 intermediate ca

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    134 C h a p t e r 5 • Salt-satura

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    136 C h a p t e r 5 protective anod

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    138 C h a p t e r 5 by far the most

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    140 C h a p t e r 5 Although the fi

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    142 C h a p t e r 5 plugged and the

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    144 C h a p t e r 5 FIGURE 5.46 Bri

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    148 C h a p t e r 6 Group I: Identi

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    150 C h a p t e r 6 It is therefore

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    152 C h a p t e r 6 FIGURE 6.3 Unde

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    154 C h a p t e r 6 Dual element tr

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    156 C h a p t e r 6 FIGURE 6.9 Pits

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    158 C h a p t e r 6 The complex int

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    160 C h a p t e r 6 Local cathode F

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    162 C h a p t e r 6 FIGURE 6.17 Sta

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    164 C h a p t e r 6 14. Nature of a

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    166 C h a p t e r 6 Metal Cathode e

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    168 C h a p t e r 6 • Crevice cor

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    170 C h a p t e r 6 Chloride Sulfat

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    172 C h a p t e r 6 FIGURE 6.26 Sam

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    174 C h a p t e r 6 Low oxygen Low

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    176 C h a p t e r 6 The bimetallic

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    178 C h a p t e r 6 (a) (b) (c) FIG

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    180 C h a p t e r 6 FIGURE 6.34 Pla

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    182 C h a p t e r 6 FIGURE 6.35 Lay

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    184 C h a p t e r 6 The HIC mechani

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    186 C h a p t e r 6 (a) (b) FIGURE

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    188 C h a p t e r 6 Mechanism of Me

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    190 C h a p t e r 6 industry owe th

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    192 C h a p t e r 6 1.2 1 Relative

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    194 C h a p t e r 6 • Sheet cavit

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    196 C h a p t e r 6 (a) (b) FIGURE

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    198 C h a p t e r 6 K l , Stress in

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    200 C h a p t e r 6 where s m is me

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    202 C h a p t e r 6 240 180 Fatigue

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    204 C h a p t e r 6 (c) FIGURE 6.49

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    206 C h a p t e r 6 20. Fitzgerald

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    208 C h a p t e r 7 Impurities in t

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    210 C h a p t e r 7 short life of g

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    212 C h a p t e r 7 Mechanical dama

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    214 C h a p t e r 7 Industry/Applic

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    216 C h a p t e r 7 FIGURE 7.5 Pits

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    218 C h a p t e r 7 [1] Nominal che

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    220 C h a p t e r 7 The LA template

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    222 C h a p t e r 7 Figure 7.10 pre

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    224 C h a p t e r 7 12 10 8 Respons

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    226 C h a p t e r 7 FIGURE 7.14 Typ

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    228 C h a p t e r 7 Electrode poten

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    230 C h a p t e r 7 Grade Corrosion

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    232 C h a p t e r 7 In the example

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    234 C h a p t e r 7 contact with th

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    236 C h a p t e r 7 High level of d

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    238 C h a p t e r 7 (a) (b) FIGURE

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    240 C h a p t e r 7 FIGURE 7.31 Sev

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    242 C h a p t e r 7 FIGURE 7.33 Pho

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    244 C h a p t e r 7 FIGURE 7.36 Adv

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    246 C h a p t e r 7 FIGURE 7.38 Cav

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    248 C h a p t e r 7 3. Provide comp

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    250 C h a p t e r 7 The following a

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    252 C h a p t e r 7 plate on the po

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    254 C h a p t e r 7 References 1. M

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    258 C h a p t e r 8 $36 billion, wh

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    260 C h a p t e r 8 In recent years

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    262 C h a p t e r 8 The AWWA has de

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    264 C h a p t e r 8 corrode through

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    Technique Advantages Disadvantages

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    268 C h a p t e r 8 Winch system El

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    270 C h a p t e r 8 • Organic mat

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    272 Constituent Chemical Formula Di

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    274 C h a p t e r 8 0.8 0.6 Corrosi

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    276 C h a p t e r 8 1 0.9 0.8 Corro

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    278 C h a p t e r 8 Concentration S

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    280 C h a p t e r 8 Nations Scienti

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    282 C h a p t e r 8 Where (Ca 2+ )

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    284 C h a p t e r 8 hundredfold. Kn

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    286 C h a p t e r 8 frequently a se

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    288 C h a p t e r 8 waters must be

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    290 C h a p t e r 8 FIGURE 8.12 Nat

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    292 C h a p t e r 8 (b) FIGURE 8.14

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    294 C h a p t e r 8 Chlorides in th

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    296 C h a p t e r 8 FIGURE 8.16 Typ

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    298 C h a p t e r 8 Almost all of t

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    300 C h a p t e r 8 Boiling water r

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    302 C h a p t e r 8 water treatment

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    304 C h a p t e r 8 The total cost

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    306 C h a p t e r 8 Two factors tha

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    308 C h a p t e r 8 water, more tre

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    310 C h a p t e r 8 Commercial form

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    312 C h a p t e r 8 Conditions at t

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    314 C h a p t e r 8 level increases

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    316 C h a p t e r 8 where A = [Log

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    318 C h a p t e r 8 8.8 Ion-Associa

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    320 C h a p t e r 8 concentrations

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    322 C h a p t e r 8 2.5 2 Degree of

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    324 System Calcium Magnesium Silica

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    326 C h a p t e r 8 The study revea

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    328 C h a p t e r 8 9. Roberge PR.

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    330 C h a p t e r 9 FIGURE 9.1 Rust

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    332 C h a p t e r 9 (a) (b) FIGURE

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    334 C h a p t e r 9 FIGURE 9.5 Elec

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    336 C h a p t e r 9 Cycling tempera

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    338 C h a p t e r 9 9.3.1 Relative

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    340 C h a p t e r 9 been identified

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    342 C h a p t e r 9 • Reduces los

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    344 C h a p t e r 9 FIGURE 9.14 A t

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    346 C h a p t e r 9 FIGURE 9.17 Fil

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    348 C h a p t e r 9 FIGURE 9.21 Dec

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    350 C h a p t e r 9 Thin sensing el

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    352 C h a p t e r 9 FIGURE 9.25 Sub

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    354 C h a p t e r 9 FIGURE 9.27 Aer

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    356 C h a p t e r 9 (a) FIGURE 9.29

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    358 C h a p t e r 9 that winds came

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    360 C h a p t e r 9 FIGURE 9.32 Met

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    362 C h a p t e r 9 9.5.2 ISO Class

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    364 C h a p t e r 9 TOW Cl - SO 2 S

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    366 C h a p t e r 9 Extremely sever

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    368 C h a p t e r 9 FIGURE 9.40 Alu

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    370 C h a p t e r 9 FIGURE 9.43 Coa

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    372 C h a p t e r 9 Khartoum, Egypt

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    374 C h a p t e r 9 FIGURE 9.46 Pac

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    376 C h a p t e r 9 FIGURE 9.48 The

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    378 C h a p t e r 9 Material Urban

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    380 C h a p t e r 9 FIGURE 9.50 Clo

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    382 C h a p t e r 9 The external ev

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    384 C h a p t e r 9 15. Lawson HH.

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    Asphalt bitume 386 C h a p t e r 1

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    388 C h a p t e r 1 0 identificatio

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    390 C h a p t e r 1 0 Water Water c

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    392 C h a p t e r 1 0 Soil Resistiv

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    394 C h a p t e r 1 0 Rating Number

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    396 C h a p t e r 1 0 R12—Redox P

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    398 C h a p t e r 1 0 Cathode Scale

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    400 C h a p t e r 1 0 Coating type

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    402 C h a p t e r 1 0 rods all poss

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    404 C h a p t e r 1 0 FIGURE 10.6 W

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    406 C h a p t e r 1 0 Concrete is s

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    408 C h a p t e r 1 0 FIGURE 10.7 C

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    410 C h a p t e r 1 0 Sessile micro

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    412 C h a p t e r 1 0 Strictly anae

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    414 C h a p t e r 1 0 Organic sulfu

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    416 C h a p t e r 1 0 The stickines

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    Assay Method Comments Microorganism

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    420 C h a p t e r 1 0 microorganism

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    422 C h a p t e r 1 0 hydrogenase e

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    424 C h a p t e r 1 0 Special handl

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    426 C h a p t e r 1 0 1.500" 316L S

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    428 C h a p t e r 1 0 References 1.

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    432 C h a p t e r 1 1 In the Materi

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    434 C h a p t e r 1 1 aircraft in w

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    436 C h a p t e r 1 1 Temperature (

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    438 C h a p t e r 1 1 corrosion tes

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    440 C h a p t e r 1 1 11.3 Selectio

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    442 C h a p t e r 1 1 calculations

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    444 C h a p t e r 1 1 This informat

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    446 C h a p t e r 1 1 11.4.1 Identi

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    448 C h a p t e r 1 1 FIGURE 11.10

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    450 C h a p t e r 1 1 For instance,

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    452 C h a p t e r 1 1 Plant Constru

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    454 C h a p t e r 1 1 The best way

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    456 C h a p t e r 1 1 Knuckle I-bea

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    458 C h a p t e r 1 1 FIGURE 11.20

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    460 C h a p t e r 1 1 (a) (b) New g

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    462 C h a p t e r 1 1 (c) FIGURE 11

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    464 C h a p t e r 1 1 often determi

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    466 C h a p t e r 1 1 Slow strain r

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    468 C h a p t e r 1 1 VII: TESTING

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    470 C h a p t e r 1 1 FIGURE 11.30

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    472 C h a p t e r 1 1 Salf fog Salt

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    474 C h a p t e r 1 1 exposure, the

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    478 C h a p t e r 1 2 Such changes

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    480 C h a p t e r 1 2 Procedural st

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    482 C h a p t e r 1 2 7 3 6 2 1 4 5

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    484 C h a p t e r 1 2 Condenser Ref

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    486 C h a p t e r 1 2 where RL C is

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    488 C h a p t e r 1 2 is, the cost

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    Operations Perspective Reliability

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    492 C h a p t e r 1 2 Guide Word St

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    494 C h a p t e r 1 2 The method br

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    496 C h a p t e r 1 2 However, ther

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    498 C h a p t e r 1 2 Event Conditi

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    500 C h a p t e r 1 2 Function PCPS

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    502 C h a p t e r 1 2 0.99998 Pipin

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    504 C h a p t e r 1 2 12.6.1 Probab

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    506 C h a p t e r 1 2 addressing al

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    Reported Cause Number of Incidents

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    Reported Cause Number of Incidents

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    512 C h a p t e r 1 2 spends approx

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    514 C h a p t e r 1 2 permanent fea

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    516 C h a p t e r 1 2 ICDA process

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    518 C h a p t e r 1 2 to be identif

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    520 C h a p t e r 1 2 Metal Loss (C

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    522 C h a p t e r 1 2 the standard

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    526 C h a p t e r 1 3 60 50 Cumulat

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    528 C h a p t e r 1 3 FIGURE 13.3 S

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    530 C h a p t e r 1 3 adjacent to t

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    532 C h a p t e r 1 3 -0.70 Anode C

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    534 C h a p t e r 1 3 Groundbed + -

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    536 C h a p t e r 1 3 When this occ

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    538 C h a p t e r 1 3 13.3.3 Anode

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    540 C h a p t e r 1 3 To rectifier

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    542 C h a p t e r 1 3 (b) (c) FIGUR

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    544 C h a p t e r 1 3 13.4 How Cath

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    546 C h a p t e r 1 3 FIGURE 13.20

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    548 C h a p t e r 1 3 13.4.2 Sacrif

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    550 C h a p t e r 1 3 The main adva

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    552 C h a p t e r 1 3 Measuring the

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    554 C h a p t e r 1 3 Aluminum anod

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    556 C h a p t e r 1 3 Impressed Cur

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    558 C h a p t e r 1 3 are typically

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    560 C h a p t e r 1 3 density outpu

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    562 C h a p t e r 1 3 FIGURE 13.28

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    564 C h a p t e r 1 3 FIGURE 13.30

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    + 566 C h a p t e r 1 3 CP power so

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    + + 568 C h a p t e r 1 3 For a bur

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    570 C h a p t e r 1 3 Depending on

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    572 C h a p t e r 1 3 Reference ele

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    574 C h a p t e r 1 3 -2500 Pipe to

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    576 C h a p t e r 1 3 In principle,

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    578 C h a p t e r 1 3 on the coupon

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    580 C h a p t e r 1 3 DC 1 DC 2 DC

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    582 C h a p t e r 1 3 FIGURE 13.45

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    584 C h a p t e r 1 3 metal surface

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    586 C h a p t e r 1 3 15. Bianchett

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    588 C h a p t e r 1 4 most weathers

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    590 C h a p t e r 1 4 5. A great va

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    592 C h a p t e r 1 4 4. Electroend

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    594 C h a p t e r 1 4 (b) FIGURE 14

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    596 C h a p t e r 1 4 exposed to at

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    598 C h a p t e r 1 4 14.4 Economic

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    Type Coating Systems for Atmospheri

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    Type Coating Systems for Immersion

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    Coating type % Solid Thickness (µm

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    Coating type % Solid Thickness (µm

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    Coating type % Solid Thickness (µm

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    610 C h a p t e r 1 4 Topcoats A to

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    612 C h a p t e r 1 4 • Organisol

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    614 C h a p t e r 1 4 nonferrous me

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    616 C h a p t e r 1 4 typically use

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    618 C h a p t e r 1 4 recommended b

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    620 C h a p t e r 1 4 No particular

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    622 C h a p t e r 1 4 Temperature V

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    624 C h a p t e r 1 4 (a) (b) FIGUR

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    626 C h a p t e r 1 4 to heat-treat

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    628 C h a p t e r 1 4 A Disbonding

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    630 C h a p t e r 1 4 responsible f

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    632 C h a p t e r 1 4 Type Coating

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    634 C h a p t e r 1 4 Ion Plating/I

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    636 C h a p t e r 1 4 FIGURE 14.13

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    638 C h a p t e r 1 4 (a) (b) FIGUR

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    640 C h a p t e r 1 4 pitting must

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    642 C h a p t e r 1 4 B A C 25 µm

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    644 C h a p t e r 1 4 FIGURE 14.22

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    646 C h a p t e r 1 4 FIGURE 14.26

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    648 C h a p t e r 1 4 FIGURE 14.29

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    650 C h a p t e r 1 4 ASTM Standard

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    652 C h a p t e r 1 4 Environmental

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    654 C h a p t e r 1 4 of the coatin

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    656 C h a p t e r 1 4 (a) FIGURE 14

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    658 C h a p t e r 1 4 14.10.3 Water

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    660 C h a p t e r 1 4 For certain s

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    662 C h a p t e r 1 4 13. Salagaras

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    664 C h a p t e r 1 5 may be detrim

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    666 C h a p t e r 1 5 15.2 Thermody

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    668 C h a p t e r 1 5 The oxygen pa

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    Enthalpy Entropy Heat Capacity (Cp)

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    672 C h a p t e r 1 5 Species State

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    674 C h a p t e r 1 5 0 NiS 2 NiS -

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    676 C h a p t e r 1 5 15.3.1 Scale

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    678 C h a p t e r 1 5 grow accordin

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    680 C h a p t e r 1 5 where k p is

  • Page 729 and 730:

    682 C h a p t e r 1 5 Oxide Oxide/M

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    684 C h a p t e r 1 5 alloys and ga

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    686 C h a p t e r 1 5 Common name U

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    688 C h a p t e r 1 5 The vapor alu

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    690 C h a p t e r 1 5 The alloy com

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    Temperature 980 (°C) 1095 (°C) 11

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    694 C h a p t e r 1 5 10.00 Lines o

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    696 C h a p t e r 1 5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3

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    698 C h a p t e r 1 5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0

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    700 C h a p t e r 1 5 Maximum Allow

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    702 C h a p t e r 1 5 10.0 9.0 8.0

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    704 C h a p t e r 1 5 15.4.4 Metal

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    706 C h a p t e r 1 5 15.4.6 Gaseou

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    708 C h a p t e r 1 5 Chemical reac

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    710 C h a p t e r 1 5 References 1.

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    712 A p p e n d i x A Date Landmark

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    714 A p p e n d i x A Shortly after

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    1 1 ±1 H Hydrogen 1.0 2 3 +1 Li Li

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    718 A p p e n d i x C Density: (kg/

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    720 A p p e n d i x C 9.8067 kg(for

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    722 A p p e n d i x C Specific heat

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    726 I n d e x Alloys: copper, 200 c

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    728 I n d e x Bacteria (Cont.): sul

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    730 I n d e x Cells (corrosion cell

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    732 I n d e x Cooling water systems

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    734 I n d e x D Damage (see Corrosi

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    736 I n d e x Engineers, corrosion

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    738 I n d e x Glacial acetic acids,

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    740 I n d e x Internal Corrosion Te

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    742 I n d e x Materials Selector so

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    744 I n d e x Nodes, 491 Nonconsuma

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    746 I n d e x Polymeric materials (

  • Page 798 and 799:

    748 I n d e x Scaling indices, 313-

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    750 I n d e x Stiff-Davis index, 31

  • Page 802 and 803:

    752 I n d e x “Triad, The,” 372

  • Page 804:

    754 I n d e x Z Zeolite softening,

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