News From Non -Aligned World NAM calls for comprehensive approach towards the issue of missilesBy IINS Research Team Missiles continue to be a focus of increased international attention, discussion and activity. Their potential to carry and deliver weapons of mass destruction (WMD) payload quickly and accurately makes missiles a qualitatively significant political and military issue. In addition, the diversity of international views on matters related to missiles poses a particular challenge for efforts to address the issue in multilateral fora. These concerns are related to, inter alia, the increasing number, range, technological sophistication and geographic spread of missiles and their capability of delivering weapons of mass destruction, in particular nuclear weapons, as well as conventional weapons, missile defences and their strategic consequences, the potential use of space-launch vehicle technology for the development of missiles, the role of missiles in military doctrines as well as the role and scope of confidencebuilding measures NAM Member States are committed to establishing a peaceful international order based on a rule of law. As part of promoting the principle of disarmament, NAM has highlighted the need for a multilaterally negotiated, universal, comprehensive, transparent and nondiscriminatory approach toward the issue of missiles in all its aspects as a contribution to international peace and security. NAM has expressed its support for efforts to be continued within the UN to explore further the issue of missiles in all its aspects. In this regard, NAM has emphasized the contribution of peaceful uses of space technologies, including space launch vehicle technologies, to human advancement, such as for telecommunications and data gathering on natural disasters. The Movement has emphasized the need to keep the issue of missiles in all its aspects on the agenda of the UN General Assembly and welcomed that the Panel of Governmental Experts established in accordance with Resolution 59/67 successfully concluded its work in 2008 and submitted its report to the 63rd session of the UN General Assembly. The Movement has encouraged follow up efforts to further examine the elements contained in the conclusions of the UN Secretary- General’s Report A/63/176. The report discusses the background and present situation with regard to missiles, and identifies a number of key issues which should be taken into account in order to address, in a comprehensive manner, the issue of missiles in all its aspects. These issues include, inter alia, the global and regional security backdrop which provides the motivation (or lack thereof) for missile development, testing, production, acquisition, transfer, possession, deployment and use; the circumstances of transfer to and use of certain types of missiles and missile technology by State or non-State actors; the issue of disarmament, arms control and non-proliferation; the interrelation between doctrines, strategies and missile-related behaviour; the relative salience of ballistic and cruise missiles as well as missiles as delivery vehicles for weapons of mass destruction or conventional arms; missile defence; and the increased contribution of space-based capabilities to a wide range of human endeavours. NAM agrees with the conclusion of the report that it is important to have continued international efforts to deal with the increasingly complex issue of missiles in the interest of international peace and security, and “NAM Member States are committed to establishing a peaceful international order based on a rule of law. As part of promoting the principle of disarmament, NAM has highlighted the need for a multilaterally negotiated, universal, comprehensive, transparent and non-discriminatory approach toward the issue of missiles in all its aspects as a contribution to international peace and security” to further deliberate on the issue, specifically focusing attention on existing and emerging areas of consensus. In this context, NAM has emphasized the important role of the United Nations in providing a more structured and effective mechanism to build such a consensus. NAM’s firm position is that pending the achievement of such a universal approach related to delivery systems for weapons of mass destruction, any initiative to address these concerns effectively and in a sustainable and comprehensive manner should be through an inclusive process of negotiations in a forum where all States could participate as equal. The Movement thus stresses the importance of the security concerns of all States at regional and global levels in any approach to the issue of missiles in all its aspects. December, 2017 (12)
News From Non -Aligned World NAM highlights the significance of UNCLOS By IINS Research Team The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also known as the Law of the Sea Treaty, is the international agreement that defined the limits of the territorial seas of nations and the areas in which they could exploit marine resources. It also established the rules for the use of the high seas for international navigation, and outlined the rights and responsibilities of nations in the protection of the marine environment. The Convention, concluded in 1982 came into force in 1994. More than thirty years after its opening for signature and twenty years after its entry into force, UNCLOS continues to provide an effective, comprehensive and overarching international legal framework for the oceans and seas. The UN General Assembly has recognized the pre-eminent contribution of the Convention to the strengthening of peace, security, cooperation and friendly relations among all nations, to the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples of the world, as well as to the sustainable development of the oceans and seas. Because UNCLOS covers a wide range of ocean issues, it also provides the legal framework for their sustainable development. UNCLOS has thus emerged as an important part of the international legal system and also serves as an important instrument for the protection of the marine environment. Non-Aligned Movement regards United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982 as one of the most comprehensive legal instruments negotiated under the auspices of the United Nations. The Movement has emphasized its importance for its States Parties as the primary instrument which, inter alia, confers rights on coastal states for the exploration and exploitation of the living and nonliving marine resources within national jurisdiction, as well as establishes a framework for access by other states to these resources and defines the rights and responsibilities of states in their use of the world’s oceans, including their general obligations to protect and preserve the marine environment. NAM has also highlighted the importance of the designation by the Convention of the seabed, subsoil and ocean floor beyond national jurisdiction as the common heritage of mankind, as well as the establishment of the International Seabed Authority, to organize, control and administer all activities of the state parties in the Area on behalf of the international community and in accordance with the pertinent provisions of the Convention. “Non-Aligned Movement regards United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982 as one of the most comprehensive legal instruments negotiated under the auspices of the United Nations. The Movement has emphasized its importance for its States Parties as the primary instrument which, inter alia, confers rights on coastal states for the exploration and exploitation of the living and non-living marine resources within national jurisdiction, as well as establishes a framework for access by other states to these resources; and defines the rights and responsibilities of states in their use of the world’s oceans, including their general obligations to protect and preserve the marine environment” Prominent NAM Member States are party to UNCLOS. India is party to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the Agreement relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the UNCLOS; and the 1995 United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement. India has been a member of the Council of the International Seabed Authority and its experts are elected to its Finance Committee and the Legal and Technical Commission. Also, an Indian scientist is regularly elected to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf established under the UNCLOS. Further, an Indian jurist has been an elected judge of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea since its establishment in 1996. Vietnam, another prominent NAM Member State has actively applied relevant provisions of general international law since the adoption of the UNCLOS, to develop its legislative and regulatory acts relating to the sea. In conformity with the progressive trend of international maritime law, Vietnam has promulgated “Declaration on the Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, Exclusive Economic Zone and Continental Shelf” in 1977 establishing the Exclusive Economic Zone of 200 Contd.....On Page 16 (13) December, 2017
The December edition of Co-op News: connecting, challenging and championing the global co-operative movement. This issue we look at the issue of engagement, and the co-operative way of making connections. Plus coverage of the 2018 Practitioners Forum, new Real Living Wage rates and member-nominated director (MND) elections at the Co-op Group.