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04 Digital Childhoods:

04 Digital Childhoods: Living online CHAPTER 4: KEY POINTS Whether and how much children benefit from digital experiences has much to do with their starting points. Children with strong relationships use the internet to bolster these, while children experiencing depression, stress or problems at home may find that their digital experience compounds their existing difficulties. Not using digital media at all and excessively using digital media tend towards negative effects, while moderate use has positive effects. Are children addicted? According to science, no. Using addiction terminology in relation to children’s everyday tech use – including in media coverage of these issues – is unhelpful and at times harmful. Parents’ and educators’ concerns about excessive screen time should not be discounted but need to be addressed in the context of many other factors affecting children’s well-being – from family functioning and school dynamics to physical activity and diet.

04 DIGITAL CHILDHOODS: LIVING ONLINE 25 This chapter explores some of the ways digitalization is changing childhood, for better and for worse. ICTs have changed how children form and maintain their friendships, allowing them to maintain almost-constant contact with their peers. They have also transformed how many children spend their leisure time, providing them with a constant feed of videos, social media updates and highly immersive games. Many adults fear these changes are not all for the better, and worry that excessive screen time is isolating children from their families and surroundings, fuelling depression and even making children obese. Video games. Television. Comic books. Radio. A Google search on societal – and parental – worries about the impact of tech‌nology on children’s well-being makes clear that such concerns are nothing new. Radio was blamed for sleeplessness. Comic books for making children ‘criminal and promiscuous’. Television for social isolation. And video games for offline aggression. As far back as the sixteenth century, some feared writing would increase forgetfulness, because people would no longer rely on memory for information. They also worried that books and the printing press would lead to what today we would call information overload. Yet, compared with its innovative predecessors, the internet – and how children use it – raises concerns of a different magnitude. Connectivity and interactivity are harder to take away or turn off. Their use by children is harder to monitor. And while children access entertainment, information or social networks via a connected device, those devices gather information on them too. Questions about the impact of connectivity and interactivity abound among parents, educators, policymakers and industry leaders. Is digital engagement a threat to children’s well-being? Are they spending too much time at it? Who is most at risk? What can parents and caregivers do to allow children space to explore and develop independently while also providing enough oversight? Whether and how much children benefit from digital experiences has much to do with their starting points in life. While those with strong social and familial relationships are likely to use the internet to bolster these relationships – leading to improved well-being – children experiencing loneliness, stress, depression or problems at home, for example, may find that the internet compounds some of these existing difficulties. Conversely, children who struggle with their social lives offline can sometimes develop friendships and receive social support online that they are not receiving elsewhere. Questions of screen time for connected children, while still debated, are increasingly obsolete. This is because there is no clear agreement on when time spent on digital tech‌nology shifts from moderate to excessive; ‘how much is too much’ is highly individual, dependent on a child’s age, individual characteristics and broader life context. And many children in high-connectivity contexts find it difficult to estimate how much time they spend with digital tech‌nology, because they are more or less using it all of the time. “ Parents and teachers struggle with conflicting messages that they should limit screen time on the one hand, or get the latest device – so their children can keep up – on the other.

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