2 months ago


Preface I am a

Preface I am a vampirologist—a mythologist who specializes in cross- cultural vampire studies. There are many people who claim to be experts on vampire lore and legend who will say that they know all about Vlad Tepes and Count Dracula or that they can name several different types of vampiric species. I can do that, too, but that is not how I came to be a known vampirologist. Knowing the “who, what and where” is one thing, but knowing and more importantly understanding the “why” is another. Throughout history, every culture of man has had an incarnation of the vampire, a being responsible for causing plagues and death. A hobbyist or enthusiast may know that the hili is a vampiric creature who hunts the Xhosa people of Lesotho, South Africa, and to be certain it is a rather obscure bit of trivia. But knowing the “why” of the hili is what a vampirologist does. Why did the Xhosa people of that region of South Africa develop their vampire the way they did? Why does the hili look the way it does? Why is it an indiscriminate killer, attacking anyone at any time of the day or night? Why are the vampires that live due west completely different in every way? Why do they not cross into each other’s territories? I know the answers to all these questions because I have delved into the history, anthropology, psychology, sociology, and religious studies of just about every culture I could get my hands on. One of the questions I am frequently asked is how I ever came to be interested in vampires. I am always hesitant to answer because as simple a question as it may seem, the answer, like the vampire itself, is complex. For me, there was no single event that sparked a sudden interest, no chance meeting with someone who inspired me. As best as I can trace it back, my parents were people who encouraged learning and valued education in their children. At least once a week we would go to the library, returning home with a hodgepodge of books on various subjects. Each night around the dinner table we discussed what we learned that day and it seems to me that nothing brought my parents greater joy than when the whole family became deeply involved in a conversation where all of our cumulative knowledge was pooled, compared, and debated. Obviously at some point in my youth I discovered the mythology of the vampire went beyond Bram Stoker’s Dracula, although I cannot honestly say when it happened. I had always wanted to be an author, and some years ago I set out to write a trilogy of vampire novels. I knew then that I did not want my vampires to be just like all the fictional vampires that were already out there; I wanted my vampires to be less like Ann Rice’s vampires and more like the original mythology. What started out as what was going to be just a little bit of looking into the subject matter quickly became a full- time endeavor lasting five years. At the end of my research what I had written was not a trilogy of books about a fictional vampire but rather a compendium of vampire lore. Through self-examination, I can say that I love the vampire because there is always something new to discover, that its mystery still exists. Every time an ancient piece of parchment is found or newly translated there is the potential for an undiscovered species of vampire to be named or for a new story to be told about a type we already know to exist. In the past there 1

Preface 2 have been books both rare and expensive that have been kept out of the reach of most researchers either because the researchers lacked the clout to have access to them or because the books were locked up tight in a distant library. However, with today’s technology these books are being transcribed and scanned into electronic documents so that everyone, no matter his reason, income level, or academic credentials, can have access to them. What was once forbidden or lost knowledge is now posted in PDF format on the Internet. I love the idea that there will always be one more book to read and a new discovery to be made. As a researcher this excites me—this is why I love the vampire. To take on the task of writing an encyclopedia, on any subject, is tremendously exciting and daunting. My very first order of business had to be how I intended to establish what specific information it was going to contain as well as how inclusive it was going to be. My intent was to make a reference book that pulled together the disseminated knowledge from all over the world, from all cultures of people, from our ancient ancestors to our modern kinsmen. Additionally, I wanted my book to not only be useful to the serious- minded academics that would need my book for their own varied research but also something that could appeal to fans. To achieve this goal I committed myself to not exclude any culture, religion, or people from any historical time period and to report the facts for each entry without any personalization, dramatization, emphasis, or hyperbole. In doing so, I could ensure that each entry would be treated equally with a measured level of professional dégagé. My next task was perhaps more difficult, for to write an encyclopedia about vampires one has to have a clear definition of what a vampire is. Most interesting, there is not a pre-existing or commonly accepted idea, let alone a singular, all- encompassing definition that clearly says what a vampire is, specifically. That being the case, I would have to create one and apply it even- handedly against all potential entries for the book. This was more difficult than it sounds as what is considered a vampire in modern- day Brazil would not in side- by- side comparison be considered a vampire by the ancient Celts of Ireland—and yet, each of these mythical beings are by their people’s standards every bit a vampire. For starters, not all vampires are undead, that is, the animated corpse of a human being, such as the brykolakas of Greece. There are mythologies where a living person is a vampire, such as with the bruja of Spain. Not all vampires are considered evil; the talamaur of Australian lore is not only a living person but may choose to be a force of “good.” Not all vampires survive on human blood; the grobnik of Bulgarian lore feeds strictly on cattle and animal carcasses. Not even blood is a requirement; the algul of Arabic lore consumes rice while the gaki from Japan can feed off either samurai topknots or the thoughts generated while one meditates. It is a popular misconception that vampires can only come out at night as the light of day is said to be most deadly; however, this is hardly the case for the sixtysome species of vampire that are said to originate on the Greek isles. There it seems that many of their vampires are particularly deadly at noon, when the sun is at its apex. The Aztecs of ancient Meso- America had vampiric gods as well as vampiric demons in their pantheon, and so do the Hindus, whose religion is just as old but still practiced today throughout the world. Nor is the vampire a stagnant creature, as the pishtaco of Peru has been evolving in appearance and hunting tactics throughout the written history of the Andean people. What, then, do all these different species of vampires, from all around the world, have in common? The answer is simple: basic human fear. No matter when or where, how it hunts or what it hunts, the vampire attacks that which man considers most precious. The reason that there is no single definition of a vampire is because each culture of people, from their various

  • Page 2 and 3: Encyclopedia of Vampire Mythology
  • Page 4 and 5: Encyclopedia of Vampire Mythology T
  • Page 6 and 7: To my father, Amedeo C. Falcone, No
  • Page 8 and 9: Table of Contents Preface 1 Introdu
  • Page 12 and 13: 3 Preface time periods and from the
  • Page 14 and 15: 5 Preface and historical experts wh
  • Page 16 and 17: Introduction Vampire. To those peop
  • Page 18 and 19: 9 Introduction most part is nocturn
  • Page 20 and 21: 11 Introduction pressed to find som
  • Page 22 and 23: THE ENCYCLOPEDIA For foreign terms
  • Page 24 and 25: 15 Akhkharu In all, there are five
  • Page 26 and 27: 17 Alp tury, claims that an unnamed
  • Page 28 and 29: 19 Anaïkatoumenos Aluga (Ah- lou-
  • Page 30 and 31: 21 Annis known as an anito. It rise
  • Page 32 and 33: 23 Asanbonsam warriors dies with hi
  • Page 34 and 35: 25 Aswang Mannananggal Asrapas (AS-
  • Page 36 and 37: 27 Axeman Source: Demetrio, Encyclo
  • Page 38 and 39: 29 Balbal Vikram, by giving him a r
  • Page 40 and 41: 31 Barabarlakos pulsion and necessi
  • Page 42 and 43: 33 Bhuta Another method is to tie t
  • Page 44 and 45: 35 Blut Aussauger crown of thorns w
  • Page 46 and 47: 37 Bram Stoker’s Dracula The bott
  • Page 48 and 49: 39 Bruculacas brother, Edwin, began
  • Page 50 and 51: 41 Callicantzaro it can strike out,
  • Page 52 and 53: 43 Cel-Rãu utation of being haunte
  • Page 54 and 55: 45 Chuiaels After it rises from the
  • Page 56 and 57: 47 Cocoto male travelers astray. So
  • Page 58 and 59: 49 Croglin Grange Vampire Craitnag
  • Page 60 and 61:

    51 Death Coach sucked the blood of

  • Page 62 and 63:

    53 Dodelecker ture and manage to st

  • Page 64 and 65:

    55 Draugr Drakus (DRA- cus) In sout

  • Page 66 and 67:

    57 Dullahan dark places and have no

  • Page 68 and 69:

    59 Elbe ically it will make its own

  • Page 70 and 71:

    61 Estrie when the body of a deceas

  • Page 72 and 73:

    63 Gaki Fir Gorta (FUR GORTA) The I

  • Page 74 and 75:

    65 German Vampires life- energy unt

  • Page 76 and 77:

    67 Glaistig violent death or commit

  • Page 78 and 79:

    69 Green troduction of Christianity

  • Page 80 and 81:

    71 Habergeiss not human is that its

  • Page 82 and 83:

    73 Harppe large chin, long fangs an

  • Page 84 and 85:

    75 Huli Jing body as it flies. If s

  • Page 86 and 87:

    77 Incubus play along with the shep

  • Page 88 and 89:

    79 Jigar Khoy it drives a wooden pe

  • Page 90 and 91:

    81 Kali ranked creature in its reli

  • Page 92 and 93:

    83 Katakhanás able, and trustworth

  • Page 94 and 95:

    85 Kosci Kilcrops (KIL- crops) In F

  • Page 96 and 97:

    87 K’uei tention or affections, i

  • Page 98 and 99:

    89 Lamia Stories hand. In art she w

  • Page 100 and 101:

    91 Lapir Lampijerovic (Lamb- PER- j

  • Page 102 and 103:

    93 Lik’ichiri search of prey, dra

  • Page 104 and 105:

    95 Liogat love for them. Infertile

  • Page 106 and 107:

    97 Lugat Loogaroo (LOU- ga- roo) Va

  • Page 108 and 109:

    99 Mantindane called a majky. It is

  • Page 110 and 111:

    101 Mecaru Ceremony ilarity ends. T

  • Page 112 and 113:

    103 Mormo live on. A milos has a cl

  • Page 114 and 115:

    105 Murraue reaches down to its fee

  • Page 116 and 117:

    107 Namorodo was responsible and tr

  • Page 118 and 119:

    109 Nora sonal items in the COFFIN

  • Page 120 and 121:

    111 Opachina cery”). The Ashanti

  • Page 122 and 123:

    113 Pelesit ing its plans for reven

  • Page 124 and 125:

    115 Pisacha krasue is described as

  • Page 126 and 127:

    117 Pontianak Source: Georgieva, Bu

  • Page 128 and 129:

    119 Punyaiama Source: Crooke, Intro

  • Page 130 and 131:

    121 Rolang regenerate lost limbs, a

  • Page 132 and 133:

    123 Sampiro actual ability of seein

  • Page 134 and 135:

    125 Sheerree to keep a segben away,

  • Page 136 and 137:

    127 Stikini Source: Keightley, Fair

  • Page 138 and 139:

    129 Strigol Source: Burns, Witch Hu

  • Page 140 and 141:

    131 Talamaur If a child is conceive

  • Page 142 and 143:

    133 Tlaciques Thaye Tase (THEY SAY)

  • Page 144 and 145:

    135 Udug toyol is rather mischievou

  • Page 146 and 147:

    137 Upyr sumed into its COFFIN so t

  • Page 148 and 149:

    139 Vampirdzhija any boulder, no ma

  • Page 150 and 151:

    141 Vampire Pumpkin and obvious cla

  • Page 152 and 153:

    143 Veles Vapir (Va- PEER) Variatio

  • Page 154 and 155:

    145 Vjesci first suffer through a s

  • Page 156 and 157:

    147 Vrkolak Despite this, the vodya

  • Page 158 and 159:

    149 Vyrkolakas in peace. It could b

  • Page 160 and 161:

    151 Wume Source: Burne, Shropshire

  • Page 162 and 163:

    153 Zemu Yatu Dhana (YA- too DA- ha

  • Page 164 and 165:

    Bibliography Abbott, George Frederi

  • Page 166 and 167:

    157 Bibliography Berdoe, Edward. Th

  • Page 168 and 169:

    159 Bibliography Candelaria, Cordel

  • Page 170 and 171:

    161 Bibliography Japan. North Chems

  • Page 172 and 173:

    163 Bibliography Fauth, W. “S-s-m

  • Page 174 and 175:

    165 Bibliography Grimm, Jacob, and

  • Page 176 and 177:

    167 Bibliography Slavic Linguistics

  • Page 178 and 179:

    169 Bibliography American Cultures:

  • Page 180 and 181:

    171 Bibliography Text of Sinistrari

  • Page 182 and 183:

    173 Bibliography Pandolfo, Stefania

  • Page 184 and 185:

    175 Bibliography Rink, Henry. Tales

  • Page 186 and 187:

    177 Bibliography Silver, Carole G.,

  • Page 188 and 189:

    179 Bibliography _____. Thespis: Ri

  • Page 190 and 191:

    181 Bibliography l’irreprésentab

  • Page 192 and 193:

    Index A Bao A Qu 77 Abang Aku 77 Ab

  • Page 194 and 195:

    185 Index Bihar, India 119; see als

  • Page 196 and 197:

    187 Index daimonion 63 Daitayas 115

  • Page 198 and 199:

    189 Index glass beads 91, 101, 118

  • Page 200 and 201:

    191 Index Khleng Khmoch 84 Khleng S

  • Page 202 and 203:

    193 Index moribund 103 Morina 100 m

  • Page 204 and 205:

    195 Index Pryccolitch 119 Psezpolni

  • Page 206 and 207:

    197 Index tabong 29 Tagbanua, Phili

  • Page 208 and 209:

    199 Index Werzeleya 94, 150 Werzely

Encyclopedia of Greek and Roman Mythology (Facts on File Library ...
The Encyclopedia Of Demons And Demonology
Encyclopedia of Urban Legends
Encyclopedia of Urban Legends 2nd edition
African Folklore: An Encyclopedia - Marshalls University
Bouvier's law dictionary and concise encyclopedia -
The Encyclopedia britannica; a dictionary of arts, sciences ... - Index of
U.X.L Encyclopedia of World Mythology - Gale
Mythology Subject Guide - Osceola Library System
The Vampire - Canadian Theosophical Association
Mythology in Modern Times.pdf - Asheville City Schools
Greek Mythology-Encyclopedia Mythica Pronunciation Guide.pdf
intro to mythology & folklore - Columbia College
Nouvelles Mythologies and the Bicycle - The University of Sydney
about female deities in the mythology of finno-ugric ... -
Encyclopedia Brittanica Guide
december 2004 - The Journal of Germanic Mythology and Folklore