3 months ago


55 Draugr Drakus (DRA-

55 Draugr Drakus (DRA- cus) In southern Bulgaria, in the Rhodope mountain region, the word drakus is used to describe a vampire. Source: Georgieva, Bulgarian Mythology, 95; Mac- Dermott, Bulgarian Folk Customs, 67; McClelland, Slayers and Their Vampires, 104 Draskylo There are many species of vampires that are created when an animal, such as a cat, jumps over a corpse. Draskylo is a Greek word that means “to step across,” and it is used only when referring to the causality of vampiric creation. Source: Bunson, Vampire Encyclopedia, 113; Dundes, Vampire Casebook, 93 Drauge (DRAW- ged) Variations: GIENGANGER In the lore of the ancient Norse people, a drauge was created when a powerful necromancer died and returned as a vampiric REVENANT. It was an exceptionally physically strong being, killing anyone who entered its tomb with a single blow to the head. Eye contact with a drauge must be avoided at all cost, as it could steal vital önd (“breath”) and kill someone. Once a drauge comes into being, it is simply avoided by never entering into its burial chamber. Runes can be carved onto the gravestone to keep it trapped in its chamber, preventing it from leaving. It is very rare to hear stories of a drauge wandering the countryside. After the introduction of Christianity, the drauge was able to be destroyed if it was reburied in a Christian cemetery or had a mass said for it. Eventually, it was replaced altogether with the DRAUGR, an evil undead corpse of someone who had drowned at sea (see UNDEATH). Source: Crabb, Crabb’s English Synonymes, 287; Curran, Vampires, 93; Henderson, Norse Influence on Celtic Scotland, 106; Vicary, An American in Norway, 119 Draugr (Daw- gr) Variation: Aptgangr (“one who walks after death”), Aptrgangr, Barrow Dweller, Gronnskjegg, Haubui, Haugbui (“Sleeper in the Mound”) The draugr is a type of vampiric REVENANT from Iceland. Its name is derived from the Indo- European root word dreugh, which means “to deceive” or “to damage.” The word draugr’s more modern literal translation means “after- goer” or “one who walks in death,” but is usually taken to mean a type of undead creature (see UNDEATH). There are two types of draugr, those of the land and those of the sea (see DRAUGER, SEA). Land draugr are created when a very greedy and wealthy man is buried in a barrow with all of his possessions. To prevent this from happening, traditional lore says to place a pair of iron scissors on his chest or straw crosswise under the burial shroud. Additionally, as a precaution it is wise to tie the big toes of the deceased together so that the legs cannot move. As a final precaution, pins are driven partway into the bottom of his feet to prevent him from getting up and walking anywhere, as it would be too painful to do so. A draugr jealously guards its treasures and viciously attacks anyone who enters its tomb. It uses its supernatural strength to crush them to death or strangle them with its bare hands. It is impervious to all mundane weaponry and a few stories say that it can even increase its body size two to three times. Some draugr are able to leave their tombs and wander off into the night with the intent of crushing or rending anyone they happen across. If one should be encountered, an elderly woman must throw a bowl of her own urine at it to drive it away. In addition to its physical abilities, a draugr has an array of magical abilities as well. It can control the weather, move freely through stone and earth, and see into the future. It can also shape- shift into a cat, a great flayed bull, a gray horse with no ears or tail and a broken back, and a seal. In its cat form it will sit on a person’s chest, growing heavier and heavier until the victim suffocates to death, much like the ALP of Germany may do. The draugr’s skin is described as being either hel- blar (“death- blue”) or na foir (“corpse pale”). It smells like a rotting corpse, although even after many years it may show no real signs of decay. It retains the personality and all the memories of the person it once was. It longs for the things it had in life—food, loved ones, and warmth, but unable to have these things, it destroys property and kills livestock and people. The only pleasure it has in death is taken through its violence. After the introduction of Christianity, the draugr was destroyed if it was exhumed and given a Christian burial in a churchyard or if a mass was said for it. Also, burning the body to ash would destroy it. However, the traditional method of destroying a draugr must be undertaken by a hero, who defeats it in hand- to- hand combat, wrestling it into submission and then beheading the creature. Some of the traditional tales say that after the beheading, the hero must then walk three times around the head or body. Other stories say that a stake must also be driven into the headless corpse. Additionally, the sword

Draugr Sea 56 that is used in the beheading must be some sort of ancestral, special, or magical sword; typically this sword is already in the tomb somewhere in the draugr’s treasure hoard. It has been speculated by some scholars that the monster GRENDEL from the heroic epic poem Beowulf was a draugr. Also dragons and draugrs may well be interchangeable in some stories, as they are both greedy guardians of treasure, which is kept in an underground chamber; they act violently when motivated by greed or envy; they are shape- shifters; and they were both important enough to be Christianized when times changed. The oldest, best- known story of a draugr is that of Glam from the Grettis Saga. In it, after Glam died he became a draugr, killing many men and cattle. He was defeated by the outlaw hero Grettir in a wrestling match. Grettir promptly beheaded the creature and burned the body to ash. Source: Chadwick, Folklore, vol. LVIL, 50–65; Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, 915; Houran, From Shaman to Scientist, 103; Marwick, Folklore of Orkney and Shetland, 40 Draugr Sea (DAW- gr See) Variations: Sea Trow, Trowis According to Icelandic lore, a draugr of the sea is created whenever a person drowns in the ocean. They have been described as being “black as hell and bloated to the size of a bull,” their bodies covered with curly HAIR and seaweed. Their penis and testicles are also noted as being overly large. This draugr, a REVENANT vampiric creature, preys on seamen using an array of supernatural abilities. It can shape- shift into rocks along a shoreline, is impervious to mundane weaponry, and has supernatural strength. Like the draugr of the land that it thoroughly hates, it too retains its personality and all of its memories. Usually, it only makes itself visible to its victims, sailing the sea in half a boat. There is a draugr story that takes place on Christmas Eve back in 1857. On the Norwegian Isle of Lurøy, all the farmhands were celebrating the holiday. When they ran out of drink, everyone was too afraid to go out to the boathouse to retrieve more alcohol for fear of encountering a draugr—except for a young boy. He made it there, filled his jug, and on the way back to the celebration, a headless draugr confronted him. The boy attacked the draugr, knocking it off balance, which gave him just enough time to escape. As the boy ran for his life, he looked back over his shoulder and saw that not one but a great number of draugr were rising from the sea behind him, ready to give chase. The boy pressed on and jumped over the churchyard wall, hollering as loudly as he could, “Up, up, every Christian soul, save me!” As he landed in the churchyard, the church bell tolled the midnight hour and draugr began to rise from the earth. Within moments the two species of draugr were engaged in battle. The land draugr clutched the wood from their COFFINS to use as weapons; the sea draugr made whips of their seaweed. The boy fled to the servant quarters and told the tale of what had happened. Christmas morning everyone looked to the graveyard. It looked like a battlefield. Bits of broken COFFINS, seaweed, jellyfish, and slime were everywhere. Source: Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, 916; Marwick, An Orkney Anthology,261–62; Mckinnell, Runes, Magic and Religion; Shipley, Dictionary of Early English, 686 Dreach- Fhoula (DROC- OLA) Variations: Dreach- Shoula, Droch- Fhoula In ancient Ireland dreach- fhoula (“tainted blood”) was a type of vampiric fay. However, in modern times, the word is now used to refer to a blood feud between families. There is a castle in Kerry County, Ireland named DU’N DREACH- FHOULA (“the place of tainted blood”). Source: Curran, Vampires,64 Drude (DROOD) Variations: Drudenfuss (“Drude’s foot”), Drudenstein (“Drude’s stone”), Drute, Nachtmahr, Törin, Trud, Trude, Trut, Walriderske A VAMPIRIC WITCH well versed in the black arts, from the folklore of Austria and Bavaria, the drude has been reported as far back as the twelfth century. Almost always a woman, it will shapeshift into a bird at night and seek out a man, as they are powerless against her, to inflict horrible nightmares and terrible visions upon. She can be warded off with a drudenstein (“drude’s stone”), a stone with a naturally occurring hole in it, or with a drudenkreuz (“drude’s cross”), essentially a pentagram. Source: Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, 1041; Jones, On the Nightmare, 218; Pearson, Chances of Death, 181 Drujas (DREW- ha) Variations: Drujes There is a Persian belief that if a person dies while harboring a great rage, or while seeking revenge, or was otherwise simply an evil person, they will remain an earthbound, vampiric spirit called a drujas. These beings live in colonies in

Encyclopedia of Greek and Roman Mythology (Facts on File Library ...
The Encyclopedia Of Demons And Demonology
Encyclopedia of Urban Legends 2nd edition
African Folklore: An Encyclopedia - Marshalls University
Encyclopedia of Urban Legends
The Encyclopedia britannica; a dictionary of arts, sciences ... - Index of
Bouvier's law dictionary and concise encyclopedia -
U.X.L Encyclopedia of World Mythology - Gale
Mythology Subject Guide - Osceola Library System
The Vampire - Canadian Theosophical Association
Mythology in Modern Times.pdf - Asheville City Schools
Greek Mythology-Encyclopedia Mythica Pronunciation Guide.pdf
intro to mythology & folklore - Columbia College
Nouvelles Mythologies and the Bicycle - The University of Sydney
Encyclopedia Brittanica Guide
about female deities in the mythology of finno-ugric ... -
december 2004 - The Journal of Germanic Mythology and Folklore