atw Vol. 63 (2018) | Issue 2 ı February
core from the top of the RPV. Otherwise it will be identified
as a spent fuel and sent to the spent fuel storage system. In
the spent fuel storage system, spent fuels are put into a
storage canister. Each storage canister contains 40,000
spent fuels. After a storage canister is full with spent
fuels, it is sealed and moved to the ventilated storage well.
Each storage well contains five vertically placed storage
canisters. Spent fuels after ten years of storage will be
moved from the nuclear island to a large intermediate
storage building on the site and stored there during the
rest service time of the plant. As for reprocessing, it is
technically feasible and similar to the technology used in
PWR. At present, China is still developing this reprocessing
technology and tends to apply it in the future.
5 Future expectations of HTGR in China
The HTGR industrialization has shifted from research
toward commercial applications. CNEC announced that
the feasibility study report of the 600 MWe commercial
high temperature reactor project in Ruijin, Jiangxi province
has passed the experts auditing and promises to be the
first commercial Generation IV nuclear power plant in the
world. At present, China has mastered all the technology of
HTGR systematically and takes the lead in the world.
The home manufacture can be realized for 95 % of the
Next step, CNEC and Jiangxi Province will combine
together and submit the project proposals to the National
Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), applying to
list the project into National Nuclear Long-and-medium
Term Development Planning. After having the permit, the
feasibility study of the project will be carried out. Land
requisition, “Five-outlet-one Dish” 1
and construction of
auxiliary facilities will be carried on at the same time. After
getting the approval from NDRC and obtaining building
permits from National Nuclear Safety Administration
( NNSA), the commencement of work for the two units in
the first-stage project was planned in 2017 and they would
be combined to the grid around 2021. But due to some
reasons this project is delayed and hasn’t been started yet.
6 HTGR cooperation between China and
By the way of multi-module combination, the installed
capacity of HTGR nuclear power units can be 200 MWe,
400 MWe, 600 MWe, 800 MWe and 1000 MWe, which can
be operated with flexibility to suit the market and meet
the need of different power grid. It is suitable for being
constructed close to load centers as well as in countries
and regions with small or middle power grids.
Many countries in Southeast Asia, Middle East and
Europe, including some potential users in China, express a
keen interest in the application of HTGR in nuclear electric
power generation, sea water desalination, petrochemical
industry and coal chemical industry. The related business
cooperation is under way.
At present, CNEC starts working on HTGR preliminary
work in Jiangxi, Hunan, Guangdong, Fujian, Shandong,
Hubei and Zhejiang province successively. Meanwhile,
CNEC signs the memorandum of understanding (MOU) on
cooperation with Dubai Nuclear Energy Committee and
provides King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
(KACST) with the design scheme of HTGR sea water desalination.
They have also reached a consensus on signing the
memorandum of understanding on cooperation with Saudi
Energy City. On April 21, 2015, they signed the MOU
with South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA).
CNEC is jointly with other organization concerned to provide
nuclear fuels, spent fuel reclamation, nuclear power
plant operation, technical support, personnel training and
other integration services to the international market.
The Generation IV nuclear power system is an advanced
system which has a major revolution in economy, safety,
waste treatment and nuclear nonproliferation. HTGR is
considered to be the most possibly actualized and the most
promising advanced reactor type in the near future by the
international nuclear community .
Under the support of the National High-Technology
Project, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology,
Tsinghua University constructed the HTR-10 MW Test
Module successfully, and achieved joining the national
power grid with full power. Long-term operation and
safety tests verified the intrinsic safety of HTGR and
proved the technical feasibility of HTGR. The success of
HTR-10 MW Test Module construction and operation
marks that China has made a breakthrough in the R&D of
HTGR. China has been included among those advanced
countries in the development of HTGR technology. The
construction of the Shidao Bay HTR-PM demonstration
project is close to an end. Hopefully it will start operation
in the near future. At that time, it will be the world’s first
modular HTGR commercial demonstration power plant.
In early 2006, large pressurized water reactor and
HTGR were included in the 16 major scientific and
technological projects by “China’s national policy for
medium and long-term scientific development” in which
they are striving to make breakthroughs in 15 years.
Actualizing the major scientific and technological project
of HTGR marks that the HTGR technology in which China
has self-owned intellectual property takes a crucial step
 Zongxin, Wu: The development of high temperature gas-cooled
reactor in China. Nuclear Power Engineering 21.1 (2000): 39-43.
 Zhang, Zuoyi, et al.: The Shandong Shidao Bay 200 MW e High-
Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Pebble-Bed Module (HTR-PM)
Demonstration Power Plant: An Engineering and Technological
Innovation. Engineering 2.1 (2016): 112-118.
 Tang, Chunhe, et al.: Research and development of fuel element
for Chinese 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Journal
of Nuclear Science and Technology 37.9 (2000): 802-806.
 Fu Xiaoming, Wangjie, October 2006. Summary of HTGR
Development in China. Modern Electric Power.
Paul Scherrer Institute
Department of Nuclear Energy and Safety
5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
Swiss Nuclear Forum
4600 Olten, Switzerland
1) Five-outlet-one Dish:
In order to construct
orderly, some firstphase
need to be made,
such as electrifying,
road access, water
access, gas access
and land smoothing.
ENERGY POLICY, ECONOMY AND LAW 83
Energy Policy, Economy and Law
Development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor in China ı Wentao Guo and Michael Schorer