atw 2018-02


atw Vol. 63 (2018) | Issue 2 ı February

core from the top of the RPV. Otherwise it will be identified

as a spent fuel and sent to the spent fuel storage system. In

the spent fuel storage system, spent fuels are put into a

storage canister. Each storage canister contains 40,000

spent fuels. After a storage canister is full with spent

fuels, it is sealed and moved to the ventilated storage well.

Each storage well contains five vertically placed storage

canisters. Spent fuels after ten years of storage will be

moved from the nuclear island to a large intermediate

storage building on the site and stored there during the

rest service time of the plant. As for reprocessing, it is

technically feasible and similar to the technology used in

PWR. At present, China is still developing this reprocessing

technology and tends to apply it in the future.

5 Future expectations of HTGR in China

The HTGR industrialization has shifted from research

toward commercial applications. CNEC announced that

the feasibility study report of the 600 MWe commercial

high temperature reactor project in Ruijin, Jiangxi province

has passed the experts auditing and promises to be the

first commercial Generation IV nuclear power plant in the

world. At present, China has mastered all the technology of

HTGR systematically and takes the lead in the world.

The home manufacture can be realized for 95 % of the


Next step, CNEC and Jiangxi Province will combine

together and submit the project proposals to the National

Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), applying to

list the project into National Nuclear Long-and-medium

Term Development Planning. After having the permit, the

feasibility study of the project will be carried out. Land

requisition, “Five-outlet-one Dish” 1

and construction of

auxiliary facilities will be carried on at the same time. After

getting the approval from NDRC and obtaining building

permits from National Nuclear Safety Administration

( NNSA), the commencement of work for the two units in

the first-stage project was planned in 2017 and they would

be combined to the grid around 2021. But due to some

reasons this project is delayed and hasn’t been started yet.

6 HTGR cooperation between China and

other countries

By the way of multi-module combination, the installed

capacity of HTGR nuclear power units can be 200 MWe,

400 MWe, 600 MWe, 800 MWe and 1000 MWe, which can

be operated with flexibility to suit the market and meet

the need of different power grid. It is suitable for being

constructed close to load centers as well as in countries

and regions with small or middle power grids.

Many countries in Southeast Asia, Middle East and

Europe, including some potential users in China, express a

keen interest in the application of HTGR in nuclear electric

power generation, sea water desalination, petrochemical

industry and coal chemical industry. The related business

cooperation is under way.

At present, CNEC starts working on HTGR preliminary

work in Jiangxi, Hunan, Guangdong, Fujian, Shandong,

Hubei and Zhejiang province successively. Meanwhile,

CNEC signs the memorandum of understanding (MOU) on

cooperation with Dubai Nuclear Energy Committee and

provides King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology

(KACST) with the design scheme of HTGR sea water desalination.

They have also reached a consensus on signing the

memorandum of understanding on cooperation with Saudi

Energy City. On April 21, 2015, they signed the MOU

with South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA).

CNEC is jointly with other organization concerned to provide

nuclear fuels, spent fuel reclamation, nuclear power

plant operation, technical support, personnel training and

other integration services to the international market.

7 Conclusions

The Generation IV nuclear power system is an advanced

system which has a major revolution in economy, safety,

waste treatment and nuclear nonproliferation. HTGR is

considered to be the most possibly actualized and the most

promising advanced reactor type in the near future by the

international nuclear community [9].

Under the support of the National High-Technology

Project, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology,

Tsinghua University constructed the HTR-10 MW Test

Module successfully, and achieved joining the national

power grid with full power. Long-term operation and

safety tests verified the intrinsic safety of HTGR and

proved the technical feasibility of HTGR. The success of

HTR-10 MW Test Module construction and operation

marks that China has made a breakthrough in the R&D of

HTGR. China has been included among those advanced

countries in the development of HTGR technology. The

construction of the Shidao Bay HTR-PM demonstration

project is close to an end. Hopefully it will start operation

in the near future. At that time, it will be the world’s first

modular HTGR commercial demonstration power plant.

In early 2006, large pressurized water reactor and

HTGR were included in the 16 major scientific and

technological projects by “China’s national policy for

medium and long-term scientific development” in which

they are striving to make breakthroughs in 15 years.

Actualizing the major scientific and technological project

of HTGR marks that the HTGR technology in which China

has self-owned intellectual property takes a crucial step

towards industrialization.


[1] Zongxin, Wu: The development of high temperature gas-cooled

reactor in China. Nuclear Power Engineering 21.1 (2000): 39-43.








[7] Zhang, Zuoyi, et al.: The Shandong Shidao Bay 200 MW e High-

Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Pebble-Bed Module (HTR-PM)

Demonstration Power Plant: An Engineering and Technological

Innovation. Engineering 2.1 (2016): 112-118.

[8] Tang, Chunhe, et al.: Research and development of fuel element

for Chinese 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Journal

of Nuclear Science and Technology 37.9 (2000): 802-806.

[9] Fu Xiaoming, Wangjie, October 2006. Summary of HTGR

Development in China. Modern Electric Power.




Wentao Guo

Paul Scherrer Institute

Department of Nuclear Energy and Safety

5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland

Michael Schorer

Swiss Nuclear Forum

4600 Olten, Switzerland

1) Five-outlet-one Dish:

In order to construct

rationally and

orderly, some firstphase


need to be made,

such as electrifying,


road access, water

access, gas access

and land smoothing.


Energy Policy, Economy and Law

Development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor in China ı Wentao Guo and Michael Schorer

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