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Karki

Conclusion City

Conclusion City residents in Johor state of Malaysia experienced huge and unexpected floods in 2006 and 2007. This flood shocked both the residents and local authorities, and made them more alert for future flooding in the region. Their current ability to cope with and adapt to flooding, however, is not adequate. Local residents should further educate themselves regarding what they should do before, during, and after flooding in their neighborhoods. They should work with their neighbors, and seek support from local authorities. The local authorities, for their part, should improve their early flood warning system, adopt appropriate zoning regulations, and deploy resources to prevent and cope with flooding. They should not act in isolation, but instead, involve local residents in all flood-related planning, and set the stage for taking joint action in the event of a flood emergency. References [1] Adger, W. N. (1999). Social vulnerability to climate change and extremes in coastal Vietnam. World Development, 27, 249-269. [2] Asmara, T. A. T., & Ludin, A. N. M. (2014). Mapping Perception of Community Preparedness towards Flood in Muar River, Johor Malaysia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 18, 012126. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/18/1/012126. [3] Ayog, J. L., Bolong, N., & Zakaria, I. (2005). Human adaptation for survival against floods in Sabah floodplain areas: the past and the present. Paper presented at the 8th International Riversymposium. [4] Bahadur, A., & Tanner, T. (2014). Transformational resilience thinking: putting people, power and politics at the heart of urban climate resilience. Environment and Urbanization, 26(1), 200-214. doi: 10.1177/0956247814522154. [5] Berkes, F., & Ross, H. (2013). Community resilience: Toward an integrated approach. Society & Natural Resources, 26, 5-20. doi: 10.10 80/08941920.2012.736605. [6] Bermann, R., Quinn, C., & Paavola, J. (2012). The role of institutions in the transformation of coping capacity to sustainable adaptive capacity. Environment and Development, 2 86-100. doi: 10.1016/j.envdev.2012.03.017. [7] Berry, J. W. (2005). Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(6), 697-712. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.07.013. [8] Bhat, G. K., Karanth, A., Dashora, L., & Rajasekar, U. (2013). Addressing flooding in the city of Surat beyond its boundaries. Malaysia Sustainable Cities Program, Working Paper Series © Tej Karki & Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2016 14

Environment and Urbanization, 25(2), 429-441. doi: 10.1177/0956247813495002. [9] Böhm, H. R., Haupter, B., Heiland, P., & Dapp, K. (2004). Implementation of flood risk management measures into spatial plans and policies. River Research and Applications, 20(3), 255-267. doi: 10.1002/rra.776 [10] Bolin, R., & Stanford, L. (1998). The Northridge Earthquake: Vulnerability and disaster. New York: Routledge. [11] Chan, K. M. A., Guerry, A. D., Balvanera, P., Klain, S., Satterfield, T., Basurto, X., & Woodside, U. (2012). Where are cultural and social in ecosystem services? A framework for constructive engagement. BioScience, 62, 744-756. doi: 10.1525/bio.2012.62.8.7. [12] Chan, N. W. (2012). Impacts of Disasters and Disasters Risk Management in Malaysia: The Case of Floods. In Y. Sawada & S. Oum (Eds.), Economic and Welfare Impacts of Disasters in East Asia and Policy Responses (pp. 503-551). Jakarta: Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia. [13] Few, R. (2003). Flooding, vulnerability and coping strategies: local responses to a global threat. Progress in Development Studies, 3, 43-58. [14] Gupta, J., Termeer, C., Klostermann, J., Meijerink, S., van den Brink, M., Jong, P., & Bergsma, E. (2010). The adaptive capacity wheel: A method to assess the inherent characteristics of institutions to enable the adaptive capacity of society. Environmental Science & Policy, 13, 459-471. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2010.05.006. [15] Gupta, J., Termeer, C., Klostermann, J., Meijerink, S., van den Brink, M., Jong, P., . . . Bergsma, E. (2010). The adaptive capacity wheel: a method to assess the inherent characteristics of institutions to enable the adaptive capacity of society. Environmental Science & Policy, 13(6), 459-471. [16] Gupta, J., Termeerb, K., Klostermannc, J., Meijerinkd, S., Brinkd, M. v. d., Jonge, P., . . . Bergsmaa, E. (2010). The Adaptive Capacity Wheel: A Method to Assess the Inherent Characteristics of Institutions to Enable the Adaptive Capacity of Society. [17] Haraguchi, M., & Lall, U. (2014). Flood risks and impacts: A case study of Thailand’s floods in 2011 and research questions for supply chain decision making. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2014.09.005 [18] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2012). IPCC, 2012: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation: A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change In C. B. Field, V. Barros, T. F. Stocker, Q. Dahe, D. J. Dokken, K.L. Ebi, M. D. Mastrandrea, K. J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner, S. K. Allen, M. Tignor & P. M. Midgley (Eds.), (pp. 582). Cambridge, UK and New York, USA. Malaysia Sustainable Cities Program, Working Paper Series © Tej Karki & Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2016 15

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