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# Computing Academy GCSE Computer Science

## Switches Often, you

Switches Often, you don’t want to send data to every client on a network. A switch is an intelligent hub that can filter the data it receives and only send it on to the intended recipient(s). Switches manage the flow of packets of data sent across networks and ensure that data gets to the right place. Modems A modulator-demodulator (Modem) is used to convert the digital information used by computer systems into analog signals that can be transmitted across the telephone network. Routers Routers are used when connecting together more than one network; they ensure that network traffic is transmitted and received properly from one network to the next. Routers may be used when connecting together two local area networks (LAN), a LAN to a wide area network (WAN), or a LAN to the Internet. IP Addresses In order to successfully send a message from one computer to another, we need to know where to send it. When computers connect to a network they are assigned an Internet Protocol (IP) address; this is a unique address which is different to every other address on the network. IP addresses consist of 4 groups of decimal numbers such as: 74.125.224.72 Each decimal number represents a binary byte and computer systems will communicate using binary - we however, write IP addresses in decimal form as it’s easier for us to understand. The IP address: 74.125.224.72 would be transmitted and read by computer systems as: 01001010 01111101 11100000 01001000 105

IP addresses can be static, so that a computer will always have the same address, or dynamic, so that a computer may be allocated a different address each time it connects to the network. MAC Addresses Unique Media Access Control (MAC) addresses are allocated to every Network Interface Card (NIC) by the manufacturer. Every network interface has a different MAC address, so a laptop with a wired network connection and a wireless network connection will have 2 different MAC addresses. MAC addresses consist of six pairs of hexadecimal numbers such as: C1:B3:57:12:C1:F2 Bandwidth Bandwidth describes how much data can be transmitted through a medium - which could be wired or wireless - at one time. If a network is being used by several users at the same time - all of whom are transmitting or receiving data - the network may slow down as there is not sufficient bandwidth. Bandwidth is measured in bits per second (bps). 106

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