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Computing Academy GCSE Computer Science

The Language of

The Language of Programming Languages Programme is a UK spelling and we use it to refer to television programmes, a football programme, a programme of events etc. It would never be correct in the UK to call it a ‘football program’. The Americans, however, use the word program for everything including television shows. Unlike the Americans, in the UK, we only use the word program when referring to computers both as a noun and a verb. We would say: • I can program that computer. [verb] • The computer program does not work. [noun] • Developing computer programs is really fun. [noun] We can also talking about programming, programmers and programmed as in: 165

I am a computer programmer, I am fairly good at programming and I have programmed several apps. Notice how we use a double ‘mm’ (but no ‘e’) here? Machine Code No matter the type of computer you are using be this a games console, a mobile device or a traditional PC, they all feature at their heart a CPU. The only type of data that the CPU can understand and process is 1s and 0s. We know that computer systems operate on a base 2 or binary system with 1s and 0s - on and off. The first computers were programmed by literally turning switches on and off to input data into the system - we still do this today although we have streamlined the process a lot. No matter what programming language you might use to create games, apps or other types of software, this is all ultimately converted into 1s and 0s for the CPU. This language of 1s and 0s that the CPU understands is called Machine Code. It is possible to create programs directly in machine code but it would be enormously time consuming. We know that the Von Neumann architecture used in CPUs means that data and instructions are both stored in the same place and fed to the CPU together. The fetchdecode-execute cycle then determines which parts are instructions and which are data values. The following example is an example of machine code. The first byte (remember, a byte is a sequence of 8 digits) shown here might be an instruction such as ADD; the second byte might actually be a data value. It is for the CPU to determine what is data and what is an instruction. 01100101 001100100 166

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