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Computing Academy GCSE Computer Science

Generations We’ve now

Generations We’ve now looked at three generations of programming languages. if (price > 150) { High Level Language 3rd Generation Uses Statements discount = getDiscount() price = price - discount } LOAD 14X3 Assembly Language 2nd Generation Uses Mnemonics SUB 14X4 14X3 MOVE 14X2 STORE 14X4 Machine Code 1st Generation Uses Binary 10110110111110100000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000 10101110101101110100101110101 171

Translators The CPU, of course, cannot directly run high-level languages; they need to be translated into machine code. Remember, machine code is different for different CPUs, so programs written in high-level languages need to be translated into the specific variant of machine code needed by the CPU in that computer system. We’ve already looked at one type of translator - an assembler - which translates assembly language into machine code. When it comes to high-level languages, there are two ways of performing this translation. Compliers Compilers take the whole program written in a highlevel language and translate it all into machine code before it will run. When compiling code (which can take quite a while), if there are any errors or bugs these are all found at the same time; the process of compiling will stop and the programmer can then go through and fix all of these errors. Once all of the errors are fixed, the program can be compiled again and will run error free - usually much quicker than an interpreted program as all of the translation happens before the program runs - not during it. Once programs have been complied, they don’t need to be complied again, so the original source code is not required. This makes it very difficult for individuals to reverse engineer or change the software (which is seen as an advantage to software developers). 172

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