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# Computing Academy GCSE Computer Science

## destination =

destination = “Berlin” The original value stored in the variable is overwritten. The value of destination is now “Berlin” and “Alicante” has been lost. We could of course create multiple variables: destination1 = “Alicante” destination2 = “Berlin” destination3 = “Calais” ...but this method takes up quite a lot of memory and makes is harder to use this information later. The way in which we should store a list of items such as this is by using a one-dimensional array. destinations = [“Alicante”, “Berlin”, “Calais”, “Dijon”, “Espinosa”] Here we have declared a new variable called destinations which is an array. In order to access elements within the array we can now just use the position of that element within the array: print(destinations[1]) Berlin 209

Note that the first location is an array is 0, so in the previous example, in order to print “Berlin”, we accessed destinations[1] which is actually the second element in the array. Arrays can be used effectively with loops. Imagine that we now wanted to print a list of t h e s e d e s t i n a t i o n s . W e c o u l d w r i t e : print(destinations[0]) print(destinations[1]) print(destinations[2]) print(destinations[3]) print(destinations[4]) ...but this code is not efficient as we have essentially written the same thing five times. The follow code iterates through a loop, accessing and printing each element. Only one print statement is used and we would need no additional code for an array containing thousands of destinations. This makes it much more efficient. arraySize = 4 count = 0 while (count < arraySize): print(destinations[count]) count = count + 1 Alicante Berlin Calais Dijon Espinosa 210

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Acknowledgements All images, photog

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Charles Babbage The “father of th

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5. Networking .....................

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What Are Computer Systems? Computer

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Input, Process, Output The followin

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Using Computer Systems Why are Comp

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Reliability We rely on computer sys

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do what and when in the event of a

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Example Imagine that System A has b

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Further Considerations Environmenta

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Hardware Hardware vs Software Compu

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Computers use several different typ

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Random Access Memory (RAM) The brai

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ROM and Virtual Memory Read Only Me

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Central Processing Unit (CPU) The C

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Fetch Get location of next instruct

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Registers Each CPU core executes ju

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3 Software Software describes the s

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Operating Systems An operating syst

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allow users to interact with the sy

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Android in 2008 and Windows unveile

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Drivers While the OS takes on much

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Custom Sometimes, off the shelf sof

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Utilities We know that the operatin

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Binary What is Binary? We need to b

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The column values are 10 times the

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Denary to Binary Performing convers

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Task Work out what numbers are bein

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Binary Addition When using the deci

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4. Looking at the ‘8’ column we

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Two’s Complement Two's complement

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• We wanted to subtract 9 from 49

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The binary number for 111 is: 01101

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3 A 8 4 2 1 8 4 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0

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Here are some more examples: 5D in

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Denary to Hexadecimal Should we wis

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ASCII In 1960 the American Standard

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While ASCII was useful for textual

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Images We know that in order to rep

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This photograph of the Sacré-Cœur

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If we zoom in on the 2 bit (4 colou

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process analogue sound waves we nee

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A higher sample rate produces bette

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5 Networking Networks allow us to p

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Key Point A network is a collection

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Network Classification Local Area N

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Network Infrastructure In order to

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Switches Often, you don’t want to

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Network Types Peer-to-peer In a pee

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When typing a web address into a br

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Network Topologies There are severa

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Star Every node on a star network i

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have been agreed. Once this has hap

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The Internet The Internet is a netw

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Should the computer with the intern

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Sheffield Wednesday Football Clu

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The following CSS code is responsib

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Lossless Compression Encoding data

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Thinking About Data What is a Datab

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Records and Fields Look again at th

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Database Management Systems Organis

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DBMSs can lock a record if it is cu

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ward, but attended several times, m

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Here we can see that David Jones ha

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Referential Integrity Enforcement R

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Separating of Data and Applications

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Queries The database can be used by

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Once the query has been execute the

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Logic Gates In 1854 a British mathe

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AND An AND gate requires both input

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XOR (Exclusive OR) An XOR gate will

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NOR A NOR gate only outputs a 1 if

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Each of these would options would i

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