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Computing Academy GCSE Computer Science

allow users to interact

allow users to interact with the system using graphical icons and visual indicators; today this is the most common way for home users to interact with computer systems. The way we interact with computer systems continues to change and develop. We are increasingly using touch, voice and even gesture commands to control our computer systems. Command-Line Interface Before GUIs were developed, computer users had to type in each command they wanted to give to the computer using a command-line interface. While today home users find using a GUI easier, many systems administrators, programmers and expert users still prefer to use the command-line as it can allow greater control and speed up certain processes. Windows Developed by Microsoft, the Windows series is still the most popular operating system for personal computers. The first version of this proprietary commercial OS was released in 1985 and called Windows 1.0. The latest version, Windows 8, was released in 2012. 45

Mac OS The first version of Mac OS was released in 1984 and was simply known as the “system”. It was not until 1996 when the software became known as Mac OS. The latest version is known as OS X Mountain Lion and was released in 2012. Linux Although not as popular as an OS for home PCs, most of the websites that we visit and the online services that we use are hosted on computers that run a Linux OS. As Linux is open source, any developer can freely access the source code and modify it as they wish; this has led to the development of many different versions or distributions of Linux including Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora and Red hat. Linux is a popular choice for embedded systems and can be found controlling many modem routers, digital and satellite television recorders and smartphones. In fact, almost 30% of smartphones in use today run a version of Linux. Did you know that Android is a modified version of Linux? Mobile Operating Systems Mobile devices are designed to be used differently to home PCs. They need to consume less power as they run on a battery, the screen is smaller so information needs to be laid out appropriately, and today, most smartphones accept touch or voice commands rather than input from a keyboard. As such, standard operating systems were not suitable to be used on mobile devices and developers had to build specialist platforms suitable for this type of device. Palm developed Palm OS and Windows developed Windows CE in 1996, Nokia launched S40 OS (Java ME) in 1999 and Symbian brought out their OS in 2000. Blackberry brought out their OS in 2002 and this provided extremely popular with business users before Apple launched iOS on the first iPhone in 2007. Google released 46

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