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Computing Academy GCSE Computer Science

Charles Babbage The

Charles Babbage The “father of the computer”. An English mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer who invented the concept of a programmable computer. v

Contents 1. Computer Systems ............................................................................ 8 What Are Computer Systems 9 Input, Process, Output 11 Using Computer Systems 13 Standards 18 Further Considerations 21 2. Hardware ............................................................................ 24 Permanent Storage 26 Random Access Memory 31 ROM and Virtual Memory 33 Central Processing Unit 35 3. Software ............................................................................ 41 What Is Software? 42 Operating Systems 43 Drivers 49 Applications 50 Utilities 53 4. Data Representation ............................................................................ 54 Binary 55 Hexadecimal 71 ASCII 81 Images 85 Sound 90 vi

  • Page 2 and 3: Copyright © Copyright 2013. Comput
  • Page 4 and 5: Acknowledgements All images, photog
  • Page 8 and 9: 5. Networking .....................
  • Page 10 and 11: What Are Computer Systems? Computer
  • Page 12 and 13: Input, Process, Output The followin
  • Page 14 and 15: Using Computer Systems Why are Comp
  • Page 16 and 17: Reliability We rely on computer sys
  • Page 18 and 19: do what and when in the event of a
  • Page 20 and 21: Example Imagine that System A has b
  • Page 22 and 23: Further Considerations Environmenta
  • Page 24 and 25: Task 2 Find out more about the Data
  • Page 26 and 27: Hardware Hardware vs Software Compu
  • Page 28 and 29: Computers use several different typ
  • Page 30 and 31: Advantages Fast read / write access
  • Page 32 and 33: Random Access Memory (RAM) The brai
  • Page 34 and 35: ROM and Virtual Memory Read Only Me
  • Page 36 and 37: Central Processing Unit (CPU) The C
  • Page 38 and 39: Fetch Get location of next instruct
  • Page 40 and 41: Registers Each CPU core executes ju
  • Page 42 and 43: 3 Software Software describes the s
  • Page 44 and 45: Operating Systems An operating syst
  • Page 46 and 47: allow users to interact with the sy
  • Page 48 and 49: Android in 2008 and Windows unveile
  • Page 50 and 51: Drivers While the OS takes on much
  • Page 52 and 53: Custom Sometimes, off the shelf sof
  • Page 54 and 55: Utilities We know that the operatin
  • Page 56 and 57:

    Binary What is Binary? We need to b

  • Page 58 and 59:

    The column values are 10 times the

  • Page 60 and 61:

    Denary to Binary Performing convers

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    Task Work out what numbers are bein

  • Page 64 and 65:

    Binary Addition When using the deci

  • Page 66 and 67:

    4. Looking at the ‘8’ column we

  • Page 68 and 69:

    Two’s Complement Two's complement

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    • We wanted to subtract 9 from 49

  • Page 72 and 73:

    Hexadecimal Large binary numbers ar

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    The binary number for 111 is: 01101

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    3 A 8 4 2 1 8 4 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0

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    Here are some more examples: 5D in

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    Denary to Hexadecimal Should we wis

  • Page 82 and 83:

    ASCII In 1960 the American Standard

  • Page 84 and 85:

    While ASCII was useful for textual

  • Page 86 and 87:

    Images We know that in order to rep

  • Page 88 and 89:

    This photograph of the Sacré-Cœur

  • Page 90 and 91:

    If we zoom in on the 2 bit (4 colou

  • Page 92 and 93:

    process analogue sound waves we nee

  • Page 94 and 95:

    A higher sample rate produces bette

  • Page 96 and 97:

    5 Networking Networks allow us to p

  • Page 98 and 99:

    Key Point A network is a collection

  • Page 100 and 101:

    Advantages of Networks Backup Backi

  • Page 102 and 103:

    Network Classification Local Area N

  • Page 104 and 105:

    Network Infrastructure In order to

  • Page 106 and 107:

    Switches Often, you don’t want to

  • Page 108 and 109:

    Network Types Peer-to-peer In a pee

  • Page 110 and 111:

    When typing a web address into a br

  • Page 112 and 113:

    Network Topologies There are severa

  • Page 114 and 115:

    Star Every node on a star network i

  • Page 116 and 117:

    have been agreed. Once this has hap

  • Page 118 and 119:

    The Internet The Internet is a netw

  • Page 120 and 121:

    Should the computer with the intern

  • Page 122 and 123:

    Sheffield Wednesday Football Clu

  • Page 124 and 125:

    The following CSS code is responsib

  • Page 126 and 127:

    Lossless Compression Encoding data

  • Page 128 and 129:

    Task Write out your own sentence or

  • Page 130 and 131:

    Thinking About Data What is a Datab

  • Page 132 and 133:

    Records and Fields Look again at th

  • Page 134 and 135:

    Database Management Systems Organis

  • Page 136 and 137:

    DBMSs can lock a record if it is cu

  • Page 138 and 139:

    ward, but attended several times, m

  • Page 140 and 141:

    Here we can see that David Jones ha

  • Page 142 and 143:

    Referential Integrity Enforcement R

  • Page 144 and 145:

    Separating of Data and Applications

  • Page 146 and 147:

    Queries The database can be used by

  • Page 148 and 149:

    Once the query has been execute the

  • Page 150 and 151:

    Logic Gates In 1854 a British mathe

  • Page 152 and 153:

    AND An AND gate requires both input

  • Page 154 and 155:

    XOR (Exclusive OR) An XOR gate will

  • Page 156 and 157:

    NOR A NOR gate only outputs a 1 if

  • Page 158 and 159:

    Each of these would options would i

  • Page 160 and 161:

    If we move the ‘add tea bag’ in

  • Page 162 and 163:

    As the large wheel rotates in one d

  • Page 164 and 165:

    8 Programming This language of 1s a

  • Page 166 and 167:

    The Language of Programming Languag

  • Page 168 and 169:

    Instruction Sets Although all CPUs

  • Page 170 and 171:

    Some high-level languages that you

  • Page 172 and 173:

    Generations We’ve now looked at t

  • Page 174 and 175:

    Complied programs will only run on

  • Page 176 and 177:

    print(“Hello and welcome to Compu

  • Page 178 and 179:

    Understanding Variables Picture a b

  • Page 180 and 181:

    Key Point Variables are called vari

  • Page 182 and 183:

    taxdue = profit * taxrate print(tax

  • Page 184 and 185:

    Integer Integers are whole numbers

  • Page 186 and 187:

    In both Python and Java, notice tha

  • Page 188 and 189:

    The following would not work as “

  • Page 190 and 191:

    Divide (/) The divide operator can

  • Page 192 and 193:

    Comparison Operators We often want

  • Page 194 and 195:

    This is what the output would look

  • Page 196 and 197:

    limit = 100000 carMileage = 75423 i

  • Page 198 and 199:

    if brand == “Audi” or brand ==

  • Page 200 and 201:

    IF Statements Using If Programs nee

  • Page 202 and 203:

    In Java, the same code would look l

  • Page 204 and 205:

    type = “Boy” if type == “Man

  • Page 206 and 207:

    So, this code uses nested if statem

  • Page 208 and 209:

    This code first sets the count to 1

  • Page 210 and 211:

    destination = “Berlin” The orig

  • Page 212 and 213:

    Documenting Code Even simple comput

  • Page 214:

    ccxiii

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