- Text
- Superconductivity,
- Oscillations,
- Publishing,
- Superfluidity,
- Magnetic,
- Superconductors,
- Electron,
- Superconducting,
- Electrons,
- Density,
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Boris V. Vasiliev Supercondustivity Superfluidity

Superconductivity and Superfluidity where M 4 is mass of helium atom, ̂v 0 is their averaged velocity of harmonic zero-point oscillations. Hence, after simple transformations we obtain: where the notation is introduced: ̂v 0 = cα 3 { n n 0 } , (11.17) √ n 0 = α2 M4 a 3 . (11.18) B 2m e If the expression in the curly brackets we obtain n n 0 = 1, (11.19) ̂v 0 = cα 3 ∼ = 116.5 m/s. (11.20) The density of liquid helium. The condition (11.19) can be considered as the definition of the density of helium atoms in the superfluid state: n = n 0 = α2 a 3 B √ M4 2m e ∼ = 2.172 · 10 22 atom/cm 3 . (11.21) According to this definition, the density of liquid helium-4 γ 4 = nM 4 ∼ = 0.1443 g/cm 3 (11.22) that is in good agreement with the measured density of the liquid helium 0.145 g/cm 3 for T ≃ T λ . Similar calculations for liquid helium-3 gives the density 0.094 g/cm 3 , which can be regarded as consistent with its density 0.082 g/cm 3 experimentally measured near the boiling point. The dielectric constant of liquid helium. To estimate the dielectric constant of helium we can use the Clausius-Mossotti equation [56]: ε − 1 ε + 2 = 4π nA. (11.23) 3 112 Science Publishing Group

Chapter 11 Superfluidity as a Subsequence of Ordering of Zero-Point Oscillations At taking into account Eq.(11.13), we obtain ε ≈ 1.040, (11.24) that differs slightly from the dielectric constant of the liquid helium, measured near the λ-point [57]: ε ≈ 1.057 (11.25) The temperature of λ-point. The superfluidity is destroyed at the temperature T λ , at which the energy of thermal motion is compared with the energy of the Van-der-Waals bond in superfluid condensate 3 2 kT λ − e2 a B a 6 Bn 2 = 0. (11.26) With taking into account Eq.(11.21) or after appropriate substitutions T λ = 1 M 4 α 4 e 2 (11.27) 3k m e a B T λ = 1 M 4 c 2 α 6 = 2.177K, (11.28) 3 k that is in very good agreement with the measured value T λ = 2.172K. The boiling temperature of liquid helium. After comparison of Eq.(11.8) - Eq.(11.9), we have T boil = 2T λ = 4.35K (11.29) This is the basis for the assumption that the liquefaction of helium is due to the attractive forces between the atoms with ordered lengthwise components of their oscillations. The velocity of the first sound in liquid helium. It is known from the theory of the harmonic oscillator that the maximum value of its velocity is twice bigger than its average velocity. In this connection, at assumption that the first sound speed c s1 is limited by this maximum speed oscillator, we obtain c s1 = 2 ̂v 0 ≃ 233 m/s. (11.30) Science Publishing Group 113

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