5 months ago


Boris V. Vasiliev Supercondustivity Superfluidity

Superconductivity and

Superconductivity and Superfluidity of quantum devices, including the lasers shine. There is a long list of physical knowledge, which gave us the twentieth century. 1.1 Experimentalists and Theoreticians The important point is that the twentieth century has led to the division of physicists on experimentalists and theorists. It was a natural process caused by the increasing complexity of scientific instruments and mathematical methods for constructing theoretical models. The need for the use of the vacuum technics, the low-temperature devices, the radio-electronic amplifiers and other subtle techniques in experimental facilities has led to the fact that the experimenters could be the only people who can work not only with your head but can do something their own hands. On the contrary, people are more inclined to work with the mathematical formalism could hope for success in the construction of theoretical models. This led to the formation of two castes or even two breeds of people. In only very rare cases physicists could be successful on the both experimental and theoretical “kitchen”. The most striking scientist of this type was Enrico Fermi. He was considered as their own in the both experimental and theoretical communities. He made an enormous contribution to the development of quantum and statistical mechanics, nuclear physics, elementary particle physics, and at the same time created the world’s first nuclear reactor, opening the way for the use of nuclear energy. However, In most cases experimentalists and theorists is very jealous of each other. There are many legends about what theorist is sad sack. So there was a legend about the Nobel Prize winner - theorist Wolfgang Pauli, according to which there was even a special “Pauli effect”, which destroyed the experimental setup only at his approach. One of the most striking instances of this effect, according to legend, took place in the laboratory of J. Frank in Gottingen. Where a highly complex experimental apparatus for the study of atomic phenomena was destroid in a completely inexplicable reason. J. Frank wrote about the incident Pauli in Zurich. In response, he received a letter with a 4 Science Publishing Group

Chapter 1 Is It Possible for a Physical Theory to be Harmful? Danish mark, in which Pauli wrote that he depart to see on the Niels Bohr, and during a mysterious accident in the J. Frank laboratory he was in the train which just made a stop in Gottingen. At the same time, of course, theorists began to set the tone in physics, because they claimed they can understand all physics wholly and to explain all of its special cases. Outstanding Soviet theorist of the first half of the twentieth century was Ya. Frenkel. He wrote a lot of very good books on various areas of physics. Even a some anecdote went about his ability to explain everything. Supposedly once some experimenter caught his at a corridor and showed a some experimentally obtained curve. After a moment of thinking, Ja. Frenkel gave an explanation of the curve course. That it was noted that the curve was accidentally turned upside down. After this rotating it in place and a little reflection, Ja. Frenkel was able to explain this dependence too. 1.2 On the Specifics of the Experimental and the Theoretical Working The features of relations of theoreticians and experimentalists to their work are clearly visible on the results of their researches. These results are summarized for illustrative purposes in Table 1.1. The situation with experimental studies is simple. At these studies, various parameters of samples or the properties of the physical processes are measured. If such measurements are not supplemented by a theoretical description of the mechanisms that lead to these results, this study can be regarded as a purely experimental. It can be placing in the box 1 in the table. If an experimental study is complemented by a description of the theoretical mechanism that explains the experimental data, it’s just good physical research. Put such work in the box 2. Science Publishing Group 5

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