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The city of Uruk (the

The city of Uruk (the biblical Erek) appears to be already structured. According to traditional histories, Sumerians settle in southern Mesopotamia; they are keen in processing metals and divide the territory into city-states. The highest authority is represented by the LUGAL (“Great man”), the princesovereign who holds political, religious and military power. The lunar calendar of twelve months is born; they apply the sexagesimal system, dividing the day in 24 hours and the circumference into 360 degrees. 3113 BC After 350 years of chaos, this is the year when enki restores his African kingdom, imposing Sumerian Kings (Menes); the capital is located in Memphis. The Egyptian writing appears already formed and does not undertake any variation for centuries thanks to the easy means used to write (feathers on papyrus) whereas the original cuneiform Sumerian writing had to evolve to meet the difficulties represented by the clay support. The similarity between these two languages implies that they derive from a single stem or have shared a later phase of development. 3000-2000 A ziggurat built in the city of Kish in Sumer belongs to this period. The city of Uruk hosts the first “parliament” known in history; it consists of two “rooms” (Assembly of seniors and Assembly of citizens suitable for weapons). There appear the first clay tablets with cuneiform Sumerian writing that will acquire (with Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian Semitics) as much importance as Greek and Latin had and will have on the Western European culture. To the third millennium belongs to an Akkadian seal depicting the Solar System made of twelve bodies: Sun, Moon and ten other planets (currently we only know nine of them). Also, the heroic deeds of the legendary Chinese Emperor Huang-Ti date to the third millennium. The emperor was endowed with special knowledge and powers: he taught the inhabitants of the basin of the Huang-He (the “Yellow River”, in North China) all useful knowledge for a civil life; he built twelve mirrors with an unknown material, “miraculous tripods” that emitted sounds 194

and voices and recalled “the dragons flying in the clouds that could stand still or move, become heavy or light, were used to communicate at a distance”... In the land of Huang-Ti there worked “metal creatures, able to fly, with detachable heads, who ate minerals”. Huang-Ti's life was very long, as well as his “mates'” (more than 2,000 years). When travelling, these individuals produced thunder. 2900-2600 BC These are the years of the early Stonehenge. In 2900 BC Gilgamesh reigns at Uruk (the biblical Erek), in Sumer; as the most early Sumerian kings, was son of a god and a mortal. In Crete, Minoan civilization was establishes, and runs until 1400 BC. At Lagash (Sumer), Sargon is the first member of ENSI's dynasty (ENSI: “righteous master”, local governor) that will last for about 650 years. 2800 BC The civilization of the Indus Valley begins to form, whose territory (the Third region) had been entrusted to the government of INANNA/Ishtar: the cities of Harappa and Moenjo-daro, indeed, worshipped a single female deity. In Sumer, according to traditional history, it is recorded the infiltration of Semitic people and the separation between political and religious powers. Mesilim of Kish becomes the Great king. 2700 BC At Stonehenge, eighty stones are placed in a double circle, replaced, a few years later, by the so-called sarsen boulders arranged a circle and joined by lintels to form a ring. This period also records the beginning of the Chinese calendar that - Chinese say - was born after the arrival of the “sons of heaven who travelled on a flaming dragon-ships”. 2650 BC At Saqqara, Egypt, they built the pyramid of Zoser. 195

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