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tetragrammaton of Yahweh

tetragrammaton of Yahweh (YHWH) also carrying the writing Yaw-rad which means “descent” (Yeh-red is also the name of a patriarch born “in the days when there was the descent”...). The Sumerian kingdom, still ruled by Ur's dynasty, is invaded by the Canaanites that, in fact semiteze the territory creating some states in Isin, Larsa and Babylon (whose names have Semitic origin, from bab-ili, meaning “god's gate”). 1800 BC Since the end of the great Sumerian civilization in the early millennium, many Sumerians have migrated to China, bringing their knowledge and the first forms of writing. The Chinese language is one of the few languages that has affinities with the Sumerian. During this period, Egypt develops a large territorial growth: it conquers Nubia from where the Dogons (a people that still has significant and unexplained astronomical knowledge especially related to the star Sirius) flee to the current Mali. This dynasty drives out Israelites (faithful to Enlil since Abraham). Techniques of bronze processing develop in Mesopotamia and later spread to the north (Caucasus, Anatolia), in Egypt and in the Aegean: so, from Crete the processing will then be passed over to Western Europe. Assur begins the conquest of North-Babylonian territory: the Assyrian kingdom has a little known history until about 1450, when it became the vassal kingdom of Mitannites. 1750 BC The Hittite empire reaches its peak. Between about 1750 and 1700 the Sumerian kingdom knows one last political thriving period under the government of the City of Rim-Sin, Lord of Larsa. 1728-1686 BC Hammurabi's Kingdom. This great ruler fights a series of successful wars against neighbouring people, and also defeats his two main allies: Rim-Sin of Larsa and Zimrilim of Mari. He leaves to posterity the famous Code of laws, known by his name and written on a stele of black basalt, preserved in the Louvre. He also completed the construction of the Palace of Mari where 200

20,000 clay tablets have been found. The official language was Akkadian while the cuneiform Sumerian was considered a “sacred language”. 1682-1637 BC According to the new histories, in Egypt reigns Amenembat III (Twelfth Dynasty) whose vizier maybe was the biblical Joseph who had also served Senuseret III. According to traditional histories, the right period would instead be 1817-1772 BC. According to new histories the Jews' exodus from Egypt takes place during the XIII dynasty, reign of the pharaoh Dudimose. 1628 BC Explosion of the Santorini volcano. Climatic mutations lead to dramatic changes in the Nile's floods: Egypt weakens and migrations to Mesopotamia are recorded. Mycenae, spared from the consequences of the disaster becomes the new power in the Mediterranean; there was the worship of a goddess whose iconography remsembles INANNA (a Sumerian deity). 1539 BC The New Kingdom begins in Egypt, founded by the eighteenth dynasty. According to the new histories, instead, the New Kingdom would have started in 1194 BC. 1531 BC The Hittites of Murshiloi I sack Babylon. From 1530 to 1160 there is the socalled “Kassite period” which the Elamites cut out. 1500 BC Thutmose III says that Ra has took him on “a flight on his Boat” (Shem): the original cult of Shem will be replaced by that of obelisks and Eagles. The XVIII dynasty of pharaohs begins. To this period belongs a papyrus of Memphis in which one can read about two boats: the “Sekhen boat where the 201

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