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Smart Industry 1/2018

Smart Industry 1/2018 - The IoT Business Magazine - powered by Avnet Silica


Smart Business Title Story: Self-driving cars practices and recommendations for all players. It includes advice on how manufacturers can: •• Improve cybersecurity in smart cars •• Improve information sharing between industry actors •• Improve exchanges with security researchers and third parties Another challenge relates to vehicle-tovehicle (V2V) communication for which a dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) standard is proposed, based on the IEEE 802.11p standard working in the 5.9GHz ITS spectrum. In addition, communication with networks and pedestrians will also be needed for everything to function seamlessly; something that is hardly guaranteed given today’s patchy GSM and LTE coverage. For this reason, many observers think acceptance of autonomous vehicles will depend on the rollout of 5G networks, which is not expected until 2020 at the earliest. Regulation for legal aspects is needed, preferably sooner rather than later. Who is liable in the case where technology fails? Germany was the first to add relevant paragraphs to its traffic laws in early 2017. In most other countries the regulators still need to come to grips with the situation. Meanwhile, the auto industry is stepping on the gas. During September 2016 in Germany, Audi, BMW, Daimler, Ericsson, Huawei, Intel, Nokia, and Qualcomm came together to form the 5G Automotive Association (5GAA). In March 2017, 5GAA announced it had signed a memorandum of understanding with the European Automotive Telecom Alliance (EATA). The stated aim of this partnership is to “foster cooperation in the field of connected and autonomous driving solutions as well as standardization, spectrum and related use cases.” Private and public field tests begin The first German public test field was inaugurated in November 2015 on the A9 highway between Munich and Nuremberg with a total length of 160 km. In February 2017 the first cross-border test field was set up Smart Roads Paving the Way Forget for a moment the headline-grabbing testing of autonomous vehicles by Google and other high-tech companies and think instead about a more down-to-earth innovation: a smart highway that demonstrates the near-term potential to improve road transportation. Vital systems The real revolution in road transportation will come through the application of IoT principles ■ By Alan R Earls In 2013, the Austrian, German, and Dutch transport ministries agreed to work cooperatively to create a long highway corridor spanning the three nations – from Rotterdam to Vienna – that would test and implement cutting-edge safety and traffic management technologies. The first results came in during 2016 and 2017, showing promise in the smoothing of traffic flows and the reduction of holdups, among other things. Best of all, the technologies provide travel benefits whether the driver is a sophisticated computer system or a human being. The Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) Corridor, Joint Deployment has the potential to increase transport efficiency, improve road safety, and provide environmentally friendly mobility. Its supporters also believe it will create additional services and new business models. The system uses a set of international specifications that provide the technical basis for the deployment to bring benefits for any vehicle using the road, photo © ETSI 18

not just the specially equipped vehicles used to demonstrate more advanced features of the scheme. The C-ITS project shows autonomous, self-driving vehicles may have garnered most of the attention but the real revolution in road transportation may come from making the underlying road infrastructure and the wider environment smarter through applied IoT principles. For example, roadways that are aware of issues, such as traffic conditions, icy surfaces, or the presence of wildlife, can help individual vehicles to travel more safely and smoothly while providing system-wide management to ensure optimal routing and efficiency for all. Infrastructure must be part of the conversation Autonomous vehicles benefit, too, not only because of the additional situational awareness smart roads can provide but also because self-driving vehicles with no connection to local traffic information can’t contribute to the improved efficiency that most roads badly need. “With autonomous vehicle development, much of the attention has been given to how clever and independent the vehicle can be,” notes Ian Hughes, senior analyst for the Internet of Things at 451 Research in the UK. However, each vehicle is part of a wider network of links involving both vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-toinfrastructure (V2I) communications. “If an autonomous driving system was being built ‘greenfield,’ without any reference to existing systems, everything would be designed to interact for efficiency and safety. As we transition to autonomous [vehicles] certain hubs of infrastructure will upgrade, while others lag and require vehicles to be independent,” says Hughes. Just as toll roads offer a better service for a price, we may see some of this infra structure appear for premium use. For example, a motorway might accept autonomous vehicles using specific protocols to keep them all informed and traveling safely at speed until they break away to their destination, he explains. “Smart cars will become more integrated with national intelligent transport infrastructures and systems such as satnavs in cars, traffic signal control systems; parking information, weather reports, bridge de-icing, container management systems; variable message signs; automatic number plate recognition; or speed cameras to monitor applications, such as security CCTV systems and similar,” predicts Kevin Curran, a senior member of the IEEE and professor of cybersecurity at Ulster University. He explains that ultimately the road beneath us would become more communicative with smart cars via embedded road sensors which could be turned on during preventive road construction maintenance or in emergency conditions, alerting every vehicle to the need to reduce speed or halt. “With such a technological advantage, we can expect the end of roadside cones demarking construction and traffic flow,” he says. Other glimpses of future intelligent infrastructures beyond the C-ITS example can be seen in initiatives such as one in Birmingham in the UK, where IBM is helping with the use of Big Data analytics to understand parking patterns in order to manage congestion better. In the Birmingham system, IBM has deployed ultra-lowpower wireless sensors in roads and provided an accompanying app for drivers to get real-time availability and prices for parking. Common input sources for managing traffic include road sensors, video cameras, and GPS updates from public transport. Huawei recently demonstrated smart technologies employing coordinated vehicle grouping, vehicle-intersection manage ment, and lane-change regulation. Curran warns that the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) poses stricter latency and reliability requirements for the era of 5G networks. “On motorways a latency of one millisecond equals an approximate driving distance of three centimeters and only fast networks, such as 5G networks, can support millisecondlevel latencies, thus ensuring safe driving,” he argues. Smart cars will become more integrated with national intelligent transport infrastructures Ian Hughes senior analyst for the Internet of Things at 451 Research The general approach of automotive OEMs so far has been to march ahead with technology enabling vehicles to talk to other vehicles (V2V) but without incorporating connectivity to the cities and their infrastructure (V2I), notes Mark Zannoni, research director for smart cities and transportation at IDC Government Insights. “You don’t see carmakers coordinating with governments; they are just going along on their own,” he says. The autonomous vehicle outlook If you have a city-based smart infrastructure more of the benefits of autonomous vehicle developments will become evident, such as the improvements in safety. Right now, autonomous vehicles can sense other cars around them and when a car ahead applies its brakes yours will, too, Zannoni says. That improves safety because it is estimated that 95% of vehicle accidents result from driver error. However, the case of a child darting into the road unexpectedly may result in an autonomous vehicle applying its brakes quicker than a human would but it may still hit the child. In other words, it is not a big change from the status quo. “If you had city-based and road-based smart infrastructure, not simply technology in the car, it would sense the presence of the child, calculate the child’s possible path, and communicate that to the vehicle, helping 19