Views
7 months ago

Holt 7525-9 S15_IT

The short run focus of

The short run focus of elected officials can lead them to support policies that are economically inefficient (impose costs that exceed benefits) and to oppose policies that are economically efficient (yield benefits that exceed costs). Thus, the short run focus of elected officials can lead to government failure. Elected Officials and Special-Interest Groups Elected officials tend to have a strong desire to remain elected officials. Thus, an elected official will tend to focus on winning the next election. To improve his or her chances of winning the next election, an elected official will be responsive to the goals of special-interest groups. A specialinterest group is a group of people who are especially interested in a particular governmental policy. Usually, the group is strongly affected by the policy. Teachers will be especially interested in education policy. Peanut farmers will be especially interested in the peanut subsidy policy. A special-interest group is usually very small in size compared to the total population. This small size can actually increase the political influence of the special-interest group. A special-interest group will support policies that yield a concentrated benefit for the members of the interest group, and impose a cost that is usually dispersed over a large number of other people. Or a specialinterest group will oppose policies that impose a concentrated cost on the members of the interest group, and yield a benefit that is usually dispersed over a large number of other people. The concentrated benefits or costs experienced by the special-interest group will cause the interest group to act in certain ways that will increase the interest group’s political influence. The dispersed benefits or costs experienced by other people (outside the interest group) will cause them to act in ways that increase the interest group’s political influence. The influence of specialinterest groups is increased by: 1. Low voter turnout. Low voter turnout in political elections increases the influence of the people who do vote. Special-interest group members (expecting a concentrated benefit or cost) are likely to have a high voter turnout. Other people (expecting only dispersed benefits or costs) are likely to have a low voter turnout. Example 6: A vote on a bond issue to provide funding for the local library system is held. Library employees will be especially interested in the outcome of this vote. Library employees make up a tiny percentage of eligible voters. But library employees have a voter turnout of nearly 100%. Other eligible voters have a very low voter turnout. So the special-interest group (library employees) has a greater influence due to the low voter turnout by most voters. 2. Rational ignorance. Special-interest group members (expecting a concentrated benefit or cost) will be well-informed about the issue of concern to the interest group. Other people (expecting only dispersed benefits or costs) will likely be ill-informed about the issue of concern to the interest group. Example 7: Elected Official Cater is deciding how to vote on an upcoming issue. A vote one way will benefit a special-interest group. The group will be well-informed about how Elected Official Cater votes on this issue, and may reward Elected Official Cater for a favorable vote with campaign contributions and other support. A vote the other way will yield a dispersed benefit to the general public. The general public will be ill-informed about how Elected Official Cater votes on this issue, and probably won’t support or oppose Elected Official Cater based on this particular vote. Elected Official Cater will likely respond to the special-interest group on this issue. 3. Lobbying. Special-interest group members (expecting a concentrated benefit or cost) are likely to contribute money to hire lobbyists to try to persuade elected officials to vote a specific way on “their” issue. This lobbying is a type of rent seeking. (We discussed the socially wasteful nature of rent seeking in Chapter 22.) Other people (expecting only dispersed benefits or costs) are unlikely to lobby elected officials about the issue. The number of registered lobbyists indicates that special-interest groups do a lot of lobbying. FOR REVIEW ONLY - NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION Public Choice and Government Failure 28 - 4

Example 8: According to State and Federal Communications, Inc., there are about 46,000 registered lobbyists working at the state government level. That’s about 6 lobbyists for each state legislator. According to OpenSecrets.org, in 2014 there were over 11,000 registered and active lobbyists in Washington D.C., or about 20 lobbyists for each member of Congress. There is nothing inherently wrong with special-interest groups. Any person has a right to be especially interested in a policy that will strongly affect that person. There is nothing wrong with voting, being well-informed, or lobbying for specific policies. However, policies that benefit special-interest groups may be harmful to the general public. Because of special-interest group influence, elected officials will tend to favor policies that yield concentrated benefits and impose dispersed costs. This will be true even if the dispersed costs exceed the concentrated benefits (e.g. farm subsidies). Likewise, elected officials will tend to oppose policies that yield dispersed benefits and impose concentrated costs. This will be true even if the dispersed benefits exceed the concentrated costs (e.g. free trade agreements). Special-interest group influence can lead elected officials to support policies that are economically inefficient (impose costs that exceed benefits) and to oppose policies that are economically efficient (yield benefits that exceed costs). Thus, special-interest group influence can lead to government failure. A Congressional District as a Special-Interest Group A congressional district can be a special-interest group. The residents of a congressional district may be especially interested in a particular governmental policy. The people of Michigan may strongly favor restrictions on imported automobiles. The elected representatives from Michigan will feel strong pressure to enact legislation restricting imported automobiles. How will the Michigan legislators gain enough votes to pass the legislation beneficial to Michigan? Legislators often trade votes in order to pass legislation beneficial to their own districts. (The elected representatives from Michigan may offer to vote in favor of subsidies for peanut farmers in exchange for the votes of Georgia representatives in favor of restrictions on imported automobiles.) This vote trading is commonly called logrolling. Logrolling often leads to “pork barrel” legislation. Pork barrel legislation benefits a particular geographic region (e.g. a congressional district) and is paid for by taxpayers (and/or consumers) from a larger geographic region (e.g. the entire nation). Pork barrel legislation has often been achieved through the use of earmarks. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines an earmark as “a provision in congressional legislation that allocates a specified amount of money for a specific project, program or organization”. A famous example of an earmark was the inclusion in a 2005 omnibus spending bill of funding for the Gravina Island Bridge. The bridge, which came to be known as the “bridge to nowhere”, would have connected the city of Ketchikan, Alaska to the Ketchikan Airport on Gravina Island. The earmark provided $233 million in federal funding for the project. Congress subsequently removed the earmark for the bridge. Congress imposed a moratorium on earmarks beginning with the 2011 fiscal year. Citizens Against Government Waste reports that pork barrel spending, which had risen from $2.6 billion in 1992 to $29 billion in 2006, fell to $2.7 billion in 2014. Pork barrel legislation is an example of concentrated benefits and dispersed costs. Pork barrel legislation is economically efficient to the region that benefits (the legislation benefits that region more than it costs that region), but is often economically inefficient overall (has total costs greater than total benefits). Government Bureaus The policies enacted by legislators must be carried out by someone. The actual functioning of government is usually through government bureaus. Bureaucracies are often criticized as unresponsive, costly, hindered by excessive rules (red tape), prone to “empire-building”, etc. In the private sector, the competitive, profit-seeking nature of private business may serve to restrict FOR REVIEW ONLY - NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION 28 - 5 Public Choice and Government Failure

  • Page 1 and 2:

    PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS JEFF HOLT S

  • Page 3 and 4:

    Principles of Economics, 6th Editio

  • Page 5 and 6:

    16. Study Guide for Chapter 7 17. C

  • Page 7 and 8:

    11. Appendix: Book Review - “The

  • Page 9 and 10:

    20. Appendix: The NCAA Cartel 21. S

  • Page 11 and 12:

    Introduction: A Brief History of U.

  • Page 13 and 14:

    In the twentieth century, per capit

  • Page 15 and 16:

    Appendix: The 35 Largest National E

  • Page 17 and 18:

    Multiple Choice: ___ 1. The Jamesto

  • Page 19 and 20:

    2. Describe the economic cost of th

  • Page 21 and 22:

    Chapter 1 Scarcity and Choices The

  • Page 23 and 24:

    Example 5B: At the end of 1982, the

  • Page 25 and 26:

    Example 11: When Cindy quits her jo

  • Page 27 and 28:

    consequences may result in failure

  • Page 29 and 30:

    An upward sloping curve (as in Exam

  • Page 31 and 32:

    In making decisions, humans tend to

  • Page 33 and 34:

    5. ______________________ _________

  • Page 35 and 36:

    ___ 13. If the value of one variabl

  • Page 37 and 38:

    Y Point X Y A 0 1 B 3 3 C 6 5 D 9 7

  • Page 39 and 40:

    Chapter 2 Trade and Economic System

  • Page 41 and 42:

    Example 4B: The following quantitie

  • Page 43 and 44:

    1. An increase in the quantity of r

  • Page 45 and 46:

    3. For whom to produce? This is det

  • Page 47 and 48:

    The graph below illustrates the shi

  • Page 49 and 50:

    The two primary economic systems ar

  • Page 51 and 52:

    ___ 12. The capitalist vision sees

  • Page 53 and 54:

    ___ 25. According to the book “Ca

  • Page 55 and 56:

    Chapter 3 Demand, Supply, and Equil

  • Page 57 and 58:

    . For inferior goods, income and de

  • Page 59 and 60:

    The same information can be placed

  • Page 61 and 62:

    Not only does a free market elimina

  • Page 63 and 64:

    $7 - 6 - 5 - S 3 S1 S 2 Price 4 - 3

  • Page 65 and 66:

    Example 17: The graph below illustr

  • Page 67 and 68:

    Questions for Chapter 3 Fill-in-the

  • Page 69 and 70:

    ___ 12. Assuming a market originall

  • Page 71 and 72:

    $8 - 7 - 6 - 5 - Price 4 - 3 - 2 -

  • Page 73 and 74:

    Chapter 4 Inflation and Unemploymen

  • Page 75 and 76:

    Computing the Rate of Inflation The

  • Page 77 and 78:

    Full Employment Though unemployment

  • Page 79 and 80:

    3. Cyclical unemployment - due to d

  • Page 81 and 82:

    During the Great Depression, the ec

  • Page 83 and 84:

    Appendix: Think Like an Economist -

  • Page 85 and 86:

    Answer questions 8. and 9. based on

  • Page 87 and 88:

    ___ 25. The extension of unemployme

  • Page 89 and 90:

    Chapter 5 Measuring Total Output: G

  • Page 91 and 92:

    5. Leisure. Leisure time is by defi

  • Page 93 and 94:

    The U.S. is a high per capita GDP c

  • Page 95 and 96:

    Example 17: In “An International

  • Page 97 and 98:

    The simple circular flow diagram be

  • Page 99 and 100:

    ___ 3. Which of the following would

  • Page 101 and 102:

    2. Explain what nonproduction trans

  • Page 103 and 104:

    Chapter 6 The Aggregate Market The

  • Page 105 and 106:

    Example 2C: Assume the same facts a

  • Page 107 and 108:

    Example 5B: The price of crude oil

  • Page 109 and 110:

    Price Level Real GDP SRAS AD 2 AD 1

  • Page 111 and 112:

    Appendix: Why the Aggregate Demand

  • Page 113 and 114:

    ___ 3. DEF Company can invest in ne

  • Page 115 and 116:

    2. List and explain the two factors

  • Page 117 and 118:

    Chapter 7 Classical Economic Theory

  • Page 119 and 120:

    Notice that the investment demand c

  • Page 121 and 122:

    Long-Run Equilibrium If Real GDP is

  • Page 123 and 124:

    Example 6B: When the economy is in

  • Page 125 and 126:

    Laissez-faire If the economy is sel

  • Page 127 and 128:

    ___ 5. According to Say’s Law: a.

  • Page 129 and 130:

    3. On the graph below, draw an aggr

  • Page 131 and 132:

    Chapter 8 Keynesian Economic Theory

  • Page 133 and 134:

    Example 2B: The graph below illustr

  • Page 135 and 136:

    Example 5: Assume that the table be

  • Page 137 and 138:

    Notice on the graph on the previous

  • Page 139 and 140:

    According to Keynesian theory, a ch

  • Page 141 and 142:

    “The General Theory” also inclu

  • Page 143 and 144:

    ___ 8. If the consumption function

  • Page 145 and 146:

    3. If the MPC is .667, and investme

  • Page 147 and 148:

    Chapter 9 Fiscal Policy The basic e

  • Page 149 and 150:

    Keynesian Fiscal Policy Theory and

  • Page 151 and 152:

    Example 5A: The federal government

  • Page 153 and 154:

    The Laffer Curve What will happen t

  • Page 155 and 156:

    Appendix: The Importance of Incenti

  • Page 157 and 158:

    ___ 4. A decrease in government exp

  • Page 159 and 160:

    2. Explain what automatic stabilize

  • Page 161 and 162:

    Chapter 10 Money, Money Creation, a

  • Page 163 and 164:

    Example 4B: The castaways on Gillig

  • Page 165 and 166:

    Looking at the balance sheet below,

  • Page 167 and 168:

    Demand-side One-shot Inflation Exam

  • Page 169 and 170:

    4. Inflation increases uncertainty

  • Page 171 and 172:

    life; it came into existence not by

  • Page 173 and 174:

    calculated by using the potential d

  • Page 175 and 176:

    ___ 12. If the required-reserve rat

  • Page 177 and 178:

    4. Referring to the balance sheet f

  • Page 179 and 180:

    Chapter 11 The Federal Reserve Syst

  • Page 181 and 182:

    5. After Bank X sells the $300,000

  • Page 183 and 184:

    Low Mortgage Interest Rates Mortgag

  • Page 185 and 186:

    Relaxed Standards for Mortgage Loan

  • Page 187 and 188:

    The Bursting of the Housing Bubble

  • Page 189 and 190:

    On February 17, 2009, the federal g

  • Page 191 and 192:

    Fed policies caused short-term inte

  • Page 193 and 194:

    ___ 10. The Fed’s most important

  • Page 195 and 196:

    ___ 25. In response to the recessio

  • Page 197 and 198:

    Chapter 12 Monetary Policy The basi

  • Page 199 and 200:

    2. A change in aggregate demand (AD

  • Page 201 and 202:

    Monetarist Transmission Mechanism C

  • Page 203 and 204:

    3. Borrowers do not have to seek ou

  • Page 205 and 206:

    Appendix: Book Review - “The Age

  • Page 207 and 208:

    Questions for Chapter 12 Fill-in-th

  • Page 209 and 210:

    ___ 16. The primary source of incom

  • Page 211 and 212:

    7. According to Alan Greenspan, wha

  • Page 213 and 214:

    Chapter 13 Taxes, Deficits, and the

  • Page 215 and 216:

    Example 5: In 2015, Taxpayer A had

  • Page 217 and 218:

    of $5 and a quantity of 10 units. T

  • Page 219 and 220:

    The complexity of the tax law also

  • Page 221 and 222:

    the current government spending and

  • Page 223 and 224:

    cut of 1964. The top rate was lower

  • Page 225 and 226:

    ___ 6. Federal excise taxes: a. are

  • Page 227 and 228:

    3. How would eliminating the loopho

  • Page 229 and 230:

    Chapter 14 Economic Growth The basi

  • Page 231 and 232:

    2. Labor. Labor can contribute to e

  • Page 233 and 234:

    estricting international trade (e.g

  • Page 235 and 236:

    An improvement in technology (e.g.

  • Page 237 and 238:

    The table below shows the economic

  • Page 239 and 240:

    will increase both Real GDP and per

  • Page 241 and 242:

    ___ 8. Which of the following is co

  • Page 243 and 244:

    ___ 26. The opinion that economic g

  • Page 245 and 246:

    Chapter 15 Less Developed Countries

  • Page 247 and 248:

    Example 8: Countries A, B, C, and D

  • Page 249 and 250:

    Obstacles to Economic Development f

  • Page 251 and 252:

    c. Restrictions on international tr

  • Page 253 and 254:

    Appendix: Book Review - “The Powe

  • Page 255 and 256:

    Example 25: In Brazil, about half t

  • Page 257 and 258:

    Study Guide for Chapter 15 Chapter

  • Page 259 and 260:

    ___ 13. Among the counterproductive

  • Page 261 and 262:

    4. List four ways that governments

  • Page 263 and 264:

    Chapter 16 International Trade The

  • Page 265 and 266:

    Other Benefits of Free Internationa

  • Page 267 and 268:

    Example 6: The graph below illustra

  • Page 269 and 270:

    competitive disadvantage. But dumpi

  • Page 271 and 272:

    is only 25% as productive as before

  • Page 273 and 274:

    Smith was skeptical of government a

  • Page 275 and 276:

    ___ 4. For Country X, what is the o

  • Page 277 and 278:

    ___ 18. Frédéric Bastiat’s “P

  • Page 279 and 280:

    4. On the graph below: (1) What is

  • Page 281 and 282:

    Chapter 17 Elasticity We are often

  • Page 283 and 284:

    Example 4A: What is price elasticit

  • Page 285 and 286:

    Example 5A: Gertie’s Gas and Go i

  • Page 287 and 288:

    Example 10A: When the price of Good

  • Page 289 and 290:

    Example 13B: On the graph below, su

  • Page 291 and 292:

    $7 - 6 - 5 - Price 4 - 3 - 2 - 1 -

  • Page 293 and 294:

    In the long run, would the deadweig

  • Page 295 and 296:

    ___ 7. The factors that determine w

  • Page 297 and 298:

    3. a. Which price (or prices) from

  • Page 299 and 300:

    Chapter 18 Utility The basic econom

  • Page 301 and 302:

    Nonetheless, society generally assu

  • Page 303 and 304:

    Example 9: Capital City operates a

  • Page 305 and 306:

    Marginal rate of substitution - the

  • Page 307 and 308:

    The diamond-water paradox is the ob

  • Page 309 and 310:

    Complete the table below to answer

  • Page 311 and 312:

    4. The graph below shows indifferen

  • Page 313 and 314:

    Chapter 19 The Firm The basic econo

  • Page 315 and 316:

    than contributing to team productio

  • Page 317 and 318:

    1. Difficulty in raising large amou

  • Page 319 and 320:

    Corporations also use self-financin

  • Page 321 and 322:

    Example 24: A blacksmith who produc

  • Page 323 and 324:

    For financing needs, proprietorship

  • Page 325 and 326:

    ___ 13. Corporations: a. are comple

  • Page 327 and 328:

    5. List two things that the absence

  • Page 329 and 330:

    Chapter 20 Production and Costs The

  • Page 331 and 332:

    In Example 5B, Birdwell finds that

  • Page 333 and 334:

    variable cost initially decreases,

  • Page 335 and 336:

    Quantity TC MC AFC AVC ATC 0 240 X

  • Page 337 and 338:

    If the scale of operation is increa

  • Page 339 and 340:

    average total cost. Average fixed c

  • Page 341 and 342:

    ___ 11. Concerning the cost curves:

  • Page 343 and 344:

    5. Complete the following cost tabl

  • Page 345 and 346:

    Chapter 21 Perfect Competition The

  • Page 347 and 348:

    Even though a perfect competitor ca

  • Page 349 and 350:

    Example 6C: This example builds on

  • Page 351 and 352:

    At what price will there be neither

  • Page 353 and 354:

    Appendix: Perfect Competition in th

  • Page 355 and 356:

    Multiple Choice: ___ 1. A perfect c

  • Page 357 and 358:

    ___ 17. Perfect competition: a. req

  • Page 359 and 360:

    Answers for Chapter 21 Fill-in-the-

  • Page 361 and 362:

    Chapter 22 Monopoly Of the four mar

  • Page 363 and 364:

    3. Exclusive ownership of an essent

  • Page 365 and 366:

    maximizing quantity (4 units) creat

  • Page 367 and 368:

    $22 - 20 - 18 - 16 - 14 - Deadweigh

  • Page 369 and 370:

    2. Negotiating, beginning at a high

  • Page 371 and 372:

    Legal barriers are created by gover

  • Page 373 and 374:

    ___ 8. The slope of the demand curv

  • Page 375 and 376:

    Price Quantity 3. List some of the

  • Page 377 and 378:

    Chapter 23 Monopolistic Competition

  • Page 379 and 380:

    For Percomp (the perfect competitor

  • Page 381 and 382:

    Example 7A: The graph below represe

  • Page 383 and 384:

    Example 9: The Organization of the

  • Page 385 and 386:

    Example 12 illustrates the dilemma

  • Page 387 and 388:

    its current price and quantity. The

  • Page 389 and 390:

    ___ 14. Game theory: a. is a method

  • Page 391 and 392:

    Answers for Chapter 23 Fill-in-the-

  • Page 393 and 394:

    Chapter 24 Factor Markets The basic

  • Page 395 and 396:

    $ $240 - 200 - 160 - 120 - 80 - 40

  • Page 397 and 398:

    Since producers will attempt to equ

  • Page 399 and 400:

    2. Differences in nonmoney aspects

  • Page 401 and 402:

    were his strikeouts, walks, and hom

  • Page 403 and 404:

    ___ 3. To maximize profits, a produ

  • Page 405 and 406:

    ___ 19. According to the book, “M

  • Page 407 and 408: Multiple Choice: 1. a. 8. c. 15. d.
  • Page 409 and 410: Chapter 25 Labor Unions The primary
  • Page 411 and 412: The elasticity of demand for union
  • Page 413 and 414: Example 4A: Assume that the graph b
  • Page 415 and 416: Notice from the graph in Example 6
  • Page 417 and 418: Wage Factory A Quantity of Labor S
  • Page 419 and 420: As a cartel, a labor union faces a
  • Page 421 and 422: ___ 10. For a monopsony: a. there i
  • Page 423 and 424: 3. The graph below represents a lab
  • Page 425 and 426: Chapter 26 Interest, Present Value,
  • Page 427 and 428: An increase in expected rates of re
  • Page 429 and 430: An asset is valuable because we exp
  • Page 431 and 432: Example 13B: General Ordnance prove
  • Page 433 and 434: Appendix: Present Value Table One f
  • Page 435 and 436: ___ 4. An increase in expected rate
  • Page 437 and 438: Problems: 1. List and explain the t
  • Page 439 and 440: Chapter 27 Market Failure The basic
  • Page 441 and 442: External Benefit If a market genera
  • Page 443 and 444: Example 2: To encourage the consump
  • Page 445 and 446: $100 - 90 - 80 - MSC 70 - $ 60 - 50
  • Page 447 and 448: A common good is nonexcludable. Non
  • Page 449 and 450: Study Guide for Chapter 27 Chapter
  • Page 451 and 452: ___ 5. What government policy would
  • Page 453 and 454: 4. Based on the information on the
  • Page 455 and 456: Chapter 28 Public Choice and Govern
  • Page 457: Candidates and the Median Voter Mod
  • Page 461 and 462: Example 10: When Elvis Presley was
  • Page 463 and 464: 4. Pessimistic bias. This is the te
  • Page 465 and 466: ___ 5. An elected official will: a.
  • Page 467 and 468: 2. If a certain policy will yield s
  • Page 469 and 470: Chapter 29 Government Regulation of
  • Page 471 and 472: underproduction is the amount that
  • Page 473 and 474: micromanagement results in business
  • Page 475 and 476: market. They may agree with their c
  • Page 477 and 478: Questions for Chapter 29 Fill-in-th
  • Page 479 and 480: ___ 10. The public interest theory
  • Page 481 and 482: 4. List the four types of costs imp
  • Page 483 and 484: Chapter 30 Agriculture and Health C
  • Page 485 and 486: weather may cause bumper crops. Bad
  • Page 487 and 488: Security and Rural Investment Act o
  • Page 489 and 490: Example 12: From 1960 to 2013, the
  • Page 491 and 492: 1. NHI would provide universal heal
  • Page 493 and 494: d. Insurance providers are not allo
  • Page 495 and 496: Study Guide for Chapter 30 Chapter
  • Page 497 and 498: Answer questions 7. through 10. by
  • Page 499 and 500: ___ 21. If there were no individual
  • Page 501 and 502: Chapter 31 Income Distribution and
  • Page 503 and 504: Income is more equally distributed
  • Page 505 and 506: over a typical career is the accumu
  • Page 507 and 508: Ideal Income Redistribution The ide
  • Page 509 and 510:

    Poverty - a family whose income fal

  • Page 511 and 512:

    Appendix: Income Inequality around

  • Page 513 and 514:

    How is this story an analogy for th

  • Page 515 and 516:

    ___ 2. In 2013, the Lowest Income 6

  • Page 517 and 518:

    Problems: 1. Explain the two primar

  • Page 519 and 520:

    Absolute advantage - when one natio

  • Page 521 and 522:

    Fiat money - money by government de

  • Page 523 and 524:

    Nonrivalrous good - a good for whic

  • Page 525 and 526:

    Absolute advantage, 16-9 Absolute e

  • Page 527 and 528:

    “Company town”, 25-6 Comparativ

  • Page 529 and 530:

    Eli Lilly and Company, 22-1 Emergen

  • Page 531 and 532:

    Houston, Texas, 15-10 Human capital

  • Page 533 and 534:

    Market, 3-1, 3-8-9 Market basket, 4

  • Page 535 and 536:

    Political bias, 9-4, 12-7 Political

  • Page 537 and 538:

    Short run production, 20-2-3 Short-

  • Page 539 and 540:

    Upturns, 9-4 USDA, 27-9, 30-1-2, 30

Eco Today - Mar10:ET Master Page 2007 - ASKnLearn
Economic Report of the President 1994 - The American Presidency ...
Failure%20of%20the%20New%20Economics
Getting-Back-to-Full-Employment_20131118
An Employment-Targeted Economic Program for South Africa
Man, Economy, and State, with Power and Market_2