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Example 12: From 1960 to

Example 12: From 1960 to 2013, the percentage of the U.S. population that is 65 years or older increased from 9.1% to 14.1%. In the early 1960s, 13% of American adults were obese. In 2013, 35% of American adults were obese. Unless there are major policy changes, health care spending will continue to increase in the near future. Technological advances that increase the capabilities of medicine are likely to continue. Real personal income is likely to continue to increase. And the percentage of the population that is 65 years or older will continue to increase as the baby boomers move into the post-65 years. Example 13: Between 2011 and 2029, the baby boom generation will be entering into the post- 65 years. The number of Americans 65 years or older is expected to increase from about 44 million in 2013 to over 70 million in 2030. The second primary concern expressed about health care is that the distribution of health care is unequal. According to the Census Bureau, 42 million people in the U.S. did not have health insurance at any time in 2013. That is about 13.4% of the nation’s population. People are without health insurance for various reasons. Many of the uninsured do not have jobs. 30% of uninsured working age adults did not work during 2013. Many of the uninsured with jobs work at smaller firms which may not provide health insurance. 55% of uninsured adults with jobs worked for firms with fewer than 25 employees. Non-citizens are more likely to be uninsured than citizens. 38% of non-citizens were uninsured in 2013. Some of the uninsured have incomes low enough to qualify for Medicaid, but have not enrolled in Medicaid. Research by Genevieve M. Kenney, et al indicated that about 33% of adults eligible for Medicaid in 2009 were not enrolled. Many of the uninsured have low income, but not low enough to qualify for Medicaid. On the other hand, some of the uninsured have income high enough that they could afford some type of health insurance policy, but choose to forego coverage, often because they are young and healthy. Example 14: In 2013, 40% of the uninsured had household income of over $50,000 and 22% had household income over $75,000. 45% of uninsured adults were ages 18 to 34. The two problems of rising overall health care spending and the unequal distribution of health care are related. The rising overall health care spending has made health insurance more expensive, causing some employers to drop health insurance coverage for their employees, and making the purchase of non-employment based health insurance very costly. If the percentage of people in the U.S. who are covered by health insurance is increased, this would almost certainly increase the demand for health care, thus driving overall health care spending even higher. The Basic Goal for Health Care Should the basic goal for health care be to slow or reverse the growth of overall health care spending? Or should the goal be to provide health insurance for all Americans? Given the basic economic problem of scarcity, the basic goal for health care should be to produce the economically efficient quantity of health care. The economically efficient quantity is the quantity where the marginal social benefit of health care equals the marginal social cost of health care. Achieving this goal is difficult for a number of reasons, including: 1. Health care consumers usually do not pay the full cost for health care services. As detailed previously, the large majority of health care payments are made by third parties, either by governmental health insurance or by private health insurance. This causes consumers to overconsume health care. Health care is overconsumed when the marginal cost to produce the health care is greater than the marginal benefit of the health care to the consumer. FOR REVIEW ONLY - NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION 2. Employer-provided health insurance receives preferential tax treatment. Employees do not pay either personal income tax or payroll tax on the value of employer-provided health insurance. This increases the willingness of employees to receive a portion of their compensation in the form of employer-provided health insurance instead of as regular 30 - 7 Agriculture and Health Care

(taxable) wages. If employer-provided health insurance received the same tax treatment as wages, many employees would probably choose to receive a higher percentage of their compensation in the form of wages and either forgo employer-provided health insurance or opt for a cheaper and less comprehensive (high-deductible) employer-provided health insurance. The preferential tax treatment received by employer-provided health insurance causes most employees to choose a comprehensive health insurance plan. This increases the prevalence of third-party payment of health care costs, increasing the tendency of consumers to overconsume health care. 3. Consumers who do pay the full cost of health care services (the uninsured) are often charged an inflated amount. Because the government and private health insurance companies negotiate with health care providers to pay only a portion of the health care provider’s “normal charge”, health care providers have an incentive to set a very high “normal charge” that the government and private health insurance companies will negotiate down from. The only consumers who are actually charged the “normal charge” are the uninsured. The artificially high normal charge may cause the uninsured to consume less than the optimal amount of health care. Example 15: Family Care Clinic sets a “normal charge” for a well-baby checkup of $120. The actual reimbursement that Family Care receives from the government or from a private health insurance company may be half of this “normal charge”. The high normal charge may cause a parent without health insurance to forgo the checkup, even if they would have been willing to pay the discounted amount that the government or a private health insurance company would pay. 4. Health care consumers lack information; a. Consumers have a difficult time determining the marginal benefit of health care. If a consumer buys a pizza, they know what they are getting. If a consumer agrees to an MRI, they don’t know how much benefit they will receive. b. Consumers often do not know the cost of various health care options. Since consumers are typically paying only a portion of the cost, they are less motivated to investigate the cost of various health care options. Health care providers are not competing for customers on the basis of cost, so they are not forthcoming about the cost of various health care options. c. Consumers often do not know much about the quality of services offered by different health care providers. The rigorous licensing requirements involved in the practice of medicine may give consumers a false sense of security that all health care providers are of uniformly high quality. Research indicates that quality varies among health care providers. 5. Health care providers lack information. Diagnosing illnesses and determining treatments is an inexact science. Health care providers often do not know how much benefit (if any) will result from a particular health care service. Health care providers want to provide successful treatment and health care consumers want to receive successful treatment, and neither is highly motivated to evaluate a particular treatment in terms of the expected benefit and the expected cost. 6. Health care providers often have an incentive to overproduce health care services. Doctors and hospitals are typically reimbursed by private health insurance companies on a fee-forservice basis. Health care providers thus generate more revenue by providing more services, even if the cost of the services is greater than the expected benefits. Options for Health Care Reform There is widespread agreement that the health care system is in need of reform. There is significant disagreement about the best type of reform. The two primary options for major health care reform are national health insurance (NHI) and consumer-driven health care (CDHC). Supporters of national health insurance assert that NHI would deal with the two primary health care concerns more successfully than the current health care system does and more successfully than would a consumer-driven health care system, because: FOR REVIEW ONLY - NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION Agriculture and Health Care 30 - 8

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    PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS JEFF HOLT S

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    Principles of Economics, 6th Editio

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    16. Study Guide for Chapter 7 17. C

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    11. Appendix: Book Review - “The

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    20. Appendix: The NCAA Cartel 21. S

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    Introduction: A Brief History of U.

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    In the twentieth century, per capit

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    Appendix: The 35 Largest National E

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    Multiple Choice: ___ 1. The Jamesto

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    2. Describe the economic cost of th

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    Chapter 1 Scarcity and Choices The

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    Example 5B: At the end of 1982, the

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    Example 11: When Cindy quits her jo

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    consequences may result in failure

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    An upward sloping curve (as in Exam

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    In making decisions, humans tend to

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    5. ______________________ _________

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    ___ 13. If the value of one variabl

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    Y Point X Y A 0 1 B 3 3 C 6 5 D 9 7

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    Chapter 2 Trade and Economic System

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    Example 4B: The following quantitie

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    1. An increase in the quantity of r

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    3. For whom to produce? This is det

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    The graph below illustrates the shi

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    The two primary economic systems ar

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    ___ 12. The capitalist vision sees

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    ___ 25. According to the book “Ca

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    Chapter 3 Demand, Supply, and Equil

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    . For inferior goods, income and de

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    The same information can be placed

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    Not only does a free market elimina

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    $7 - 6 - 5 - S 3 S1 S 2 Price 4 - 3

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    Example 17: The graph below illustr

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    Questions for Chapter 3 Fill-in-the

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    ___ 12. Assuming a market originall

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    $8 - 7 - 6 - 5 - Price 4 - 3 - 2 -

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    Chapter 4 Inflation and Unemploymen

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    Computing the Rate of Inflation The

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    Full Employment Though unemployment

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    3. Cyclical unemployment - due to d

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    During the Great Depression, the ec

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    Appendix: Think Like an Economist -

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    Answer questions 8. and 9. based on

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    ___ 25. The extension of unemployme

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    Chapter 5 Measuring Total Output: G

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    5. Leisure. Leisure time is by defi

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    The U.S. is a high per capita GDP c

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    Example 17: In “An International

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    The simple circular flow diagram be

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    ___ 3. Which of the following would

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    2. Explain what nonproduction trans

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    Chapter 6 The Aggregate Market The

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    Example 2C: Assume the same facts a

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    Example 5B: The price of crude oil

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    Price Level Real GDP SRAS AD 2 AD 1

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    Appendix: Why the Aggregate Demand

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    ___ 3. DEF Company can invest in ne

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    2. List and explain the two factors

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    Chapter 7 Classical Economic Theory

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    Notice that the investment demand c

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    Long-Run Equilibrium If Real GDP is

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    Example 6B: When the economy is in

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    Laissez-faire If the economy is sel

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    ___ 5. According to Say’s Law: a.

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    3. On the graph below, draw an aggr

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    Chapter 8 Keynesian Economic Theory

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    Example 2B: The graph below illustr

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    Example 5: Assume that the table be

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    Notice on the graph on the previous

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    According to Keynesian theory, a ch

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    “The General Theory” also inclu

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    ___ 8. If the consumption function

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    3. If the MPC is .667, and investme

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    Chapter 9 Fiscal Policy The basic e

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    Keynesian Fiscal Policy Theory and

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    Example 5A: The federal government

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    The Laffer Curve What will happen t

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    Appendix: The Importance of Incenti

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    ___ 4. A decrease in government exp

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    2. Explain what automatic stabilize

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    Chapter 10 Money, Money Creation, a

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    Example 4B: The castaways on Gillig

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    Looking at the balance sheet below,

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    Demand-side One-shot Inflation Exam

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    4. Inflation increases uncertainty

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    life; it came into existence not by

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    calculated by using the potential d

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    ___ 12. If the required-reserve rat

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    4. Referring to the balance sheet f

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    Chapter 11 The Federal Reserve Syst

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    5. After Bank X sells the $300,000

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    Low Mortgage Interest Rates Mortgag

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    Relaxed Standards for Mortgage Loan

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    The Bursting of the Housing Bubble

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    On February 17, 2009, the federal g

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    Fed policies caused short-term inte

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    ___ 10. The Fed’s most important

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    ___ 25. In response to the recessio

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    Chapter 12 Monetary Policy The basi

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    2. A change in aggregate demand (AD

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    Monetarist Transmission Mechanism C

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    3. Borrowers do not have to seek ou

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    Appendix: Book Review - “The Age

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    Questions for Chapter 12 Fill-in-th

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    ___ 16. The primary source of incom

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    7. According to Alan Greenspan, wha

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    Chapter 13 Taxes, Deficits, and the

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    Example 5: In 2015, Taxpayer A had

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    of $5 and a quantity of 10 units. T

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    The complexity of the tax law also

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    the current government spending and

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    cut of 1964. The top rate was lower

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    ___ 6. Federal excise taxes: a. are

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    3. How would eliminating the loopho

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    Chapter 14 Economic Growth The basi

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    2. Labor. Labor can contribute to e

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    estricting international trade (e.g

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    An improvement in technology (e.g.

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    The table below shows the economic

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    will increase both Real GDP and per

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    ___ 8. Which of the following is co

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    ___ 26. The opinion that economic g

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    Chapter 15 Less Developed Countries

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    Example 8: Countries A, B, C, and D

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    Obstacles to Economic Development f

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    c. Restrictions on international tr

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    Appendix: Book Review - “The Powe

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    Example 25: In Brazil, about half t

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    Study Guide for Chapter 15 Chapter

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    ___ 13. Among the counterproductive

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    4. List four ways that governments

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    Chapter 16 International Trade The

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    Other Benefits of Free Internationa

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    Example 6: The graph below illustra

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    competitive disadvantage. But dumpi

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    is only 25% as productive as before

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    Smith was skeptical of government a

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    ___ 4. For Country X, what is the o

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    ___ 18. Frédéric Bastiat’s “P

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    4. On the graph below: (1) What is

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    Chapter 17 Elasticity We are often

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    Example 4A: What is price elasticit

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    Example 5A: Gertie’s Gas and Go i

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    Example 10A: When the price of Good

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    Example 13B: On the graph below, su

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    $7 - 6 - 5 - Price 4 - 3 - 2 - 1 -

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    In the long run, would the deadweig

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    ___ 7. The factors that determine w

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    3. a. Which price (or prices) from

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    Chapter 18 Utility The basic econom

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    Nonetheless, society generally assu

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    Example 9: Capital City operates a

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    Marginal rate of substitution - the

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    The diamond-water paradox is the ob

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    Complete the table below to answer

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    4. The graph below shows indifferen

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    Chapter 19 The Firm The basic econo

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    than contributing to team productio

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    1. Difficulty in raising large amou

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    Corporations also use self-financin

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    Example 24: A blacksmith who produc

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    For financing needs, proprietorship

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    ___ 13. Corporations: a. are comple

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    5. List two things that the absence

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    Chapter 20 Production and Costs The

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    In Example 5B, Birdwell finds that

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    variable cost initially decreases,

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    Quantity TC MC AFC AVC ATC 0 240 X

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    If the scale of operation is increa

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    average total cost. Average fixed c

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    ___ 11. Concerning the cost curves:

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    5. Complete the following cost tabl

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    Chapter 21 Perfect Competition The

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    Even though a perfect competitor ca

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    Example 6C: This example builds on

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    At what price will there be neither

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    Appendix: Perfect Competition in th

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    Multiple Choice: ___ 1. A perfect c

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    ___ 17. Perfect competition: a. req

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    Answers for Chapter 21 Fill-in-the-

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    Chapter 22 Monopoly Of the four mar

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    3. Exclusive ownership of an essent

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    maximizing quantity (4 units) creat

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    $22 - 20 - 18 - 16 - 14 - Deadweigh

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    2. Negotiating, beginning at a high

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    Legal barriers are created by gover

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    ___ 8. The slope of the demand curv

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    Price Quantity 3. List some of the

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    Chapter 23 Monopolistic Competition

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    For Percomp (the perfect competitor

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    Example 7A: The graph below represe

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    Example 9: The Organization of the

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    Example 12 illustrates the dilemma

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    its current price and quantity. The

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    ___ 14. Game theory: a. is a method

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    Answers for Chapter 23 Fill-in-the-

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    Chapter 24 Factor Markets The basic

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    $ $240 - 200 - 160 - 120 - 80 - 40

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    Since producers will attempt to equ

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    2. Differences in nonmoney aspects

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    were his strikeouts, walks, and hom

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    ___ 3. To maximize profits, a produ

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    ___ 19. According to the book, “M

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    Multiple Choice: 1. a. 8. c. 15. d.

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    Chapter 25 Labor Unions The primary

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    The elasticity of demand for union

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    Example 4A: Assume that the graph b

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    Notice from the graph in Example 6

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    Wage Factory A Quantity of Labor S

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    As a cartel, a labor union faces a

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    ___ 10. For a monopsony: a. there i

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    3. The graph below represents a lab

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    Chapter 26 Interest, Present Value,

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    An increase in expected rates of re

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    An asset is valuable because we exp

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    Example 13B: General Ordnance prove

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    Appendix: Present Value Table One f

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    ___ 4. An increase in expected rate

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    Problems: 1. List and explain the t

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  • Page 442 and 443: External Benefit If a market genera
  • Page 444 and 445: Example 2: To encourage the consump
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  • Page 448 and 449: A common good is nonexcludable. Non
  • Page 450 and 451: Study Guide for Chapter 27 Chapter
  • Page 452 and 453: ___ 5. What government policy would
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  • Page 456 and 457: Chapter 28 Public Choice and Govern
  • Page 458 and 459: Candidates and the Median Voter Mod
  • Page 460 and 461: Example 8: According to State and F
  • Page 462 and 463: Example 10: When Elvis Presley was
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  • Page 468 and 469: 2. If a certain policy will yield s
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  • Page 472 and 473: underproduction is the amount that
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  • Page 476 and 477: market. They may agree with their c
  • Page 478 and 479: Questions for Chapter 29 Fill-in-th
  • Page 480 and 481: ___ 10. The public interest theory
  • Page 482 and 483: 4. List the four types of costs imp
  • Page 484 and 485: Chapter 30 Agriculture and Health C
  • Page 486 and 487: weather may cause bumper crops. Bad
  • Page 488 and 489: Security and Rural Investment Act o
  • Page 492 and 493: 1. NHI would provide universal heal
  • Page 494 and 495: d. Insurance providers are not allo
  • Page 496 and 497: Study Guide for Chapter 30 Chapter
  • Page 498 and 499: Answer questions 7. through 10. by
  • Page 500 and 501: ___ 21. If there were no individual
  • Page 502 and 503: Chapter 31 Income Distribution and
  • Page 504 and 505: Income is more equally distributed
  • Page 506 and 507: over a typical career is the accumu
  • Page 508 and 509: Ideal Income Redistribution The ide
  • Page 510 and 511: Poverty - a family whose income fal
  • Page 512 and 513: Appendix: Income Inequality around
  • Page 514 and 515: How is this story an analogy for th
  • Page 516 and 517: ___ 2. In 2013, the Lowest Income 6
  • Page 518 and 519: Problems: 1. Explain the two primar
  • Page 520 and 521: Absolute advantage - when one natio
  • Page 522 and 523: Fiat money - money by government de
  • Page 524 and 525: Nonrivalrous good - a good for whic
  • Page 526 and 527: Absolute advantage, 16-9 Absolute e
  • Page 528 and 529: “Company town”, 25-6 Comparativ
  • Page 530 and 531: Eli Lilly and Company, 22-1 Emergen
  • Page 532 and 533: Houston, Texas, 15-10 Human capital
  • Page 534 and 535: Market, 3-1, 3-8-9 Market basket, 4
  • Page 536 and 537: Political bias, 9-4, 12-7 Political
  • Page 538 and 539: Short run production, 20-2-3 Short-
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    Upturns, 9-4 USDA, 27-9, 30-1-2, 30

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