14 FUTURE TRENDS IN POLICING Partnerships with a police agency can offer many benefits to researchers, especially access to data. Professors also may find that a working relationship with a police department provides internship opportunities for the professor’s students and access to police officials who are willing to serve as guest lecturers or to provide real-world perspectives on the professor’s courses on policing. 16 The National Institute of Justice has identified factors that lead to success in locally initiated research partnerships: • Partners must develop good working relationships • Trust between the partners must be cultivated • Researchers should invest in understanding the police culture • Graduate students can be used effectively • Information systems must be able to support research • Key staff must remain in place 17 Joshua Ederheimer, Acting Director of the COPS Office, urged law enforcement to consider forming research partnerships. As an example of innovative thinking about partnerships, Ederheimer pointed to New Haven, Connecticut, Police Chief Dean Esserman’s idea of forming “teaching” police departments. Esserman has noted that while there are thousands of hospitals in the United States, there are only about 200 “teaching hospitals” affiliated with medical schools. He has called for police departments to adopt this concept, in which certain departments would serve both as operational police departments and as an environment to provide ongoing education to future and current police officers. “The commitment is to lifelong learning,” Esserman said. 18 Dine described a successful partnership between police and the Maryland Network Against Domestic Violence (MNADV), a state coalition of domestic violence prevention experts and service providers. Police from a number of departments in Maryland and the MNADV developed a series of research-based questions for police officers to ask victims at the scene of a domestic violence incident. The Frederick Police Department was chosen to represent all municipal agencies in the state, and with other agencies representing county departments and sheriffs’ offices, the questions were tested for what ultimately became a statewide effort to combat domestic violence. 16. Beth A. Sanders and Marc L. Fields, “Partnerships with University-Based Researchers,” The Police Chief, June 2009, www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_arch&article_id=1821&issue_id=62009. 17. Tom McEwen, “NIJ’s Locally Initiated Research Partnerships in Policing: Factors That Add up to Success,” National Institute of Justice Journal (January 1999), www.ilj.org/publications/docs/NIJs_Locally_Initiated_Research_ Partnerships.pdf. 18. “Transcript: Innovations in Policing—Innovation Behind the Teaching Police Department: An Interview with Colonel Dean Esserman,” by James H. Burch II, Bureau of Justice Assistance, podcast audio, https://www.bja.gov/publications/podcasts/multimedia/transcript/Transcript_Esserman_508.pdf. See also “Teaching Police Department Initiative: Creating a New Paradigm for Police Leadership,” Roger Williams University, Justice System Training and Research Institute News, Winter 2011, www.rwu.edu/sites/default/files/ justice11.pdf.
Tailoring Partnerships to Maximize Public Safety 15 The answers that officers receive result in a “lethality assessment”—a measurement of the victim’s risk of suffering death or serious injury at the hands of their intimate partner. Victims who are found to be at high risk of death or serious injury are immediately CAN VENTURING OUTSIDE TRADITIONAL AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY LEAD TO connected with a domestic violence TRANSFORMATIONAL CRIME REDUCTIONS? service provider. Dine believes that “I’m a strong proponent of law enforcement venturing this lethality assessment is a model outside of our traditional swimming lane. We can partner approach that other agencies and states with schools, other cities, and additional partners to should adopt to help reduce domestic deal with issues that are outside the traditional purview violence crime. of the police, but which impact crime. It’s heavy, difficult work, but it’s the work we can The lethality assessment program is do that will be transformational. Delivering good grounded in research that found that immediate police response is important, but its impact victims of domestic violence often is ephemeral, and we can do more. I believe our primary underestimate the degree of danger their role is to achieve crime reduction. I want permanent partners pose to them. Furthermore, improvements. research shows that victims who take Doctors alone can’t take care of our health, schools advantage of domestic violence services alone cannot educate our kids, and the police alone have a substantially lower risk of cannot ensure safety.” suffering a serious attack than those —Michael Davis, Chief who do not receive the services. While Brooklyn Park, Minnesota, Police Department it cannot be conclusively linked to the lethality assessment program, Maryland has experienced a 41 percent decline in intimate partner homicides during a three-year period while the program was in effect. 19 Albuquerque Police Partner with Business Groups and Sandia National Laboratories In recent years, the Albuquerque Police Department (APD) has worked with business organizations in a variety of fields to help them share information with each other and with the police about patterns of criminal activity and suspects. Retail stores, constructionrelated businesses, and hotels and motels are among the groups that now share information with each other and the police in real time via the Internet. For example, the Albuquerque Retail Asset Protection Association (ARAPA) is comprised of law enforcement and private sector partners who share information about retail thefts. Often, the information consists of security camera footage of suspects involved in thefts or 19. “Lethality Assessment Program: Maryland Model for First Responders—Learning to Read the Danger Signs.” Bowie, MD: Maryland Network Against Domestic Violence, http://mnadv.org/_mnadvWeb/wp-content/ uploads/2011/10/LAP_Info_Packet--as_of_12-8-10.pdf.
64 FUTURE TRENDS IN POLICING APPEND
In this report, the Police Executiv