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This England

This England is the quarterly magazine for all who love our green and pleasant land and are unashamedly proud of their English roots. Published since 1968 the magazine has now become one of England’s best loved magazines and has a readership of over 115,000 people from around the world. As well as being popular in England it outsells all other British heritage magazines in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and is sent to readers in every country of the world. Published in Cheltenham, in the heart of picturesque Gloucestershire, the magazine is edited, printed and despatched direct from England. Subscribe today and celebrate all that is best about England and the English way of life.

Historic Cemeteries In

Historic Cemeteries In Paris we visit the Père Lachaise to pay homage to our dead heroes. Prague has its Jewish Cemetery and in Los Angeles there is the star-filled Forest Lawns. And London has lots of them, some more famous than others. In the 19th century cemeteries were the height of fashion. People not only went to attend interments but used them much as we use the park today. They were created as places of peace and beauty where people could sit or stroll. Some of the tombs and monuments were designed by well-known architects — Sir Edwin Lutyens, Edward Barry, George Godwin, Sir William Tite etc. — and angels of all styles and designs seem KENSAL GREEN to reign supreme: elaborate weeping angels of death, veiled angels, flying angels and guardian angels. Then there are Greek temples — Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. And mausoleums in various ornate styles. The Victorians were fond of symbols on their tombstones. Most are religious but all have special meanings. Some of the less obvious ones are: the butterfly denoting the Resurrection, a crown (the symbol of a Christian martyr), a horse (strength, courage or the swiftness of time). The rose is for purity, the shell is for pilgrimage and most often seen on children’s tombs is the innocent lamb. And, of course, there are more personal ones. Then there are the epitaphs, some of which tell a story in themselves. Strolling through some of London’s cemeteries today and reading the names on the tombstones and monuments is like stepping back in history, with people from all walks of life: soldiers and sailors from wars going back to Napoleon, politicians, doctors, scientists, merchants, local notables, religious figures from as far back as Cromwell, and entertainers. These cemeteries, unlike the new, sterile, easy-to-mow headstones-andgrass versions, were planned down to the last flower and blade of grass to produce calm centres for reflection. Unfortunately, in some, nature has now taken over but most seem also to be nature reserves. Kensal Green, founded in 1832, was considered to be the best of its kind. And, surprisingly, it has royal connections. It also has its fair share of mausoleums from Gothic through Greek, Classical and even Egyptian. Two of King George III’s children are entombed here. It was Augustus, Duke of Sussex and the sixth son, who first chose to be buried at Kensal Green. Princess Sophia, the youngest daughter, also chose Kensal Green, wishing to be entombed opposite her favourite brother. She is the daughter who was rumoured to have had an illegitimate child. A third member of George III’s family, his grandson, George, Duke of Cambridge, is also entombed here. Some well-known names to look out for when strolling are Brunel (both Isambard and his father Sir Marc who designed the Thames Tunnel at Rotherhithe), Wilkie Collins (novelist), Mary Hogarth (Charles Dickens’ sisterin-law), James Leigh Hunt (poet and essayist), Joseph Manton (renowned gunsmith), Charles Babbage (father of computers), William Makepeace Thackeray (novelist), Anthony Trollope (novelist) and Major Walter Wingfield. In 1874 the major invented a game called “sphairistike”. We know it as lawn tennis. One person you must look out for is “James” Barry. She was a 19th-century doctor who concealed her sex when serving as an army surgeon. It was only after her death it was discovered that she was a woman. Not all cemeteries are strictly Victorian, which is when planning, pomp and ostentation took over from the previous higgledy-piggledy overcrowding of the older ones. Bunhill Fields, in the City of London, is a prime example of the ancient. It HIGHGATE The many famous people interred include Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Mrs. Henry Wood (1814-1887). Tombs of George, Duke of Cambridge (1819- 1904), and Princess Sophia (1777-1848). 24 THIS ENGLAND, Winter, 2017

WEST NORWOOD GOLDERS GREEN The tombs of Sir Henry Tate (1819-1899), Lucy Gallup (1847-1883) of the American family famous for its opinion polls, and memorials in various styles. is the oldest cemetery, dating back to about 1665. Its strange name is thought to derive from the gruesome “Bonehill”. The cramped churchyard is the last resting place of several members of the Cromwell family, Daniel Defoe (writer and journalist), John Bunyan (writer and preacher), William Blake (poet) and George Fox (the founder of the Society of Friends, Quakers). Unfortunately his tombstone was removed in the 19th century. Highgate Cemetery has many wellknown names but is probably most famous for Karl Marx. It is also the last resting place of many people from the arts. The writers include George Eliot, John Galsworthy, Mrs. Henry Wood and some of the Rossetti family: Gabriele (father), William (son) and Christina (daughter). Charles Dickens’ wife, Catherine, and daughter Dora are also here. Among other names to look out for are artist Peter de Wint, Charles Cruft (dog shows), William Foyle (bookshops), Carl Rosa (opera), Patrick Wymark (actor) and Philip Harben — one of the original television chefs. South of the River Thames is the West Norwood Cemetery which began in 1836 during the reign of William IV. Some of its famous internees include Arthur Anderson (founder of the P&O Line), Isabella (Mrs.) Beeton, Thomas Cubitt (who assisted Prince Albert with the building of Osborne House), Paul Reuter (founder of the press agency), Sir Henry Doulton and his father John (who founded the pottery manufacturer) and Lawson Johnston. This is not a name that springs readily to mind but his invention is known around the world — Bovril. Among others here are architect Sir James Knowles who laid out Leicester Square, Thomas Stoughton, founder member of publishers Hodder and Stoughton, and Sir Henry Tate — sugar merchant and philanthropist, noted for establishing the Tate Gallery. There are mausoleums and monuments galore as you stroll the paths, and some particularly attractive angels. Cremation didn’t become legal in England until 1900 so Golders Green Crematorium wasn’t founded until 1902. Strictly speaking this shouldn’t be in an article about cemeteries but as so many well-known names are here, either on plaques or urns, it has to be mentioned. From the arts are Sir Philip Burne- Jones (artist), Eric Coates (composer), Kathleen Ferrier (contralto), Adeline Genee-Isitt (ballerina), Elinor Glyn (novelist), Rudyard Kipling (novelist and poet), Benno Moiseiwitsch (pianist), Ivor Novello (composer and actor), Anna Pavlova (ballerina), Bram Stoker (novelist) and Sir Ralph Vaughan Williams (composer). In addition there are Indian princes and maharajahs and British politicians — Neville Chamberlain and Hugh Gaitskell. Representatives of the medical profession include Alexander Fleming, Sigmund Freud and Dr. Marie Stopes. There are too many cemeteries in London to cover in one article but some others you might like to see are: Hampstead: Dennis Brain (musician), Dame Gladys Cooper (actress), Pamela Frankau (novelist), Kate Greenaway (writer and illustrator), Joseph Lister The Lutyens designed Philipson Mausoleum. (surgeon), Marie Lloyd (music-hall entertainer) and Fred Terry (actor and theatrical manager). Abney Park: General William Booth (founder of the Salvation Army), his wife Catherine and his son Bramwell. Putney Vale: Peter Cheyney (novelist), Sir Jacob Epstein (sculptor), the Doherty brothers (tennis stars), Alexander Kerensky (Prime Minister of Russia immediately before the Bolsheviks took over), and Sir Edwin Saunders — dentist to Queen Victoria and King Edward VII. Most of the larger cemeteries have an office near the entrance. If it is open it is worth asking if they have a map indicating important memorials. BARBARA BOTHWELL Further Information londoncemeteries.co.uk Kensal Green Cemetery, Harrow Road, London W10 4RA Tel: 020 89690152 www.kensalgreencemetery.com Bunhill Fields, 38 City Road, London EC1Y 2BG Tel: 020 73744127 www.cityoflondon.gov.uk Highgate Cemetery, Swain’s Lane, London N6 6PJ Tel: 020 83401834 highgatecemetery.org West Norwood Cemetery, Norwood Road, West Norwood, London SE27 9JU Tel: 020 79267999 www.lambeth.gov.uk Golders Green Crematorium, Hoop Lane, London NW11 7NL Tel: 020 84552374 www.thelondoncremation.co.uk THIS ENGLAND, Winter, 2017 25

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