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106 No. 2 from 1983,

106 No. 2 from 1983, which, in the form of a graphic score of abstract fields of events, hints at the model of a carpet pattern. Carpets embody original handicraft and are the result of many stages of work. In addition, they can be described in patterns. Feldman wrote: “For the rugs, listen, the degeneration of rugs happened when people wouldn’t sit for three months like an idiot 10 hours a day, you see, they started to use synthetic dyes – well, they started to value their time, that’s when the rug world disappeared.” 214 Against this background, for Feldman color acquires the value of a basic material, which he used as the program for his composition Why Patterns? for flute, glockenspiel, and piano. In it, individually notated instruments meet for the first time towards the end of the composition where, “a series of different patterns are linked together on the chain and then juxtaposed by simple means.” 215 As in a row of bricks, individual patterns occur and are strung together. Single events and sequences form into a freely developing program. Feldman tells us: “For me, patterns are groups of sounds completely enclosed in themselves that give me the chance to break off without preparation and immediately enter a new musical state.” 216 For hearing that has been trained in principles of order, the patterns may be recognizable as a type, which is given its most distinctive structure and unmistakable Prägnanz in the gestural expression of theme and melody. The acts of cognition that then become effective may be similar to traditional reception processes, and this appears to be what Feldman has in mind. He speaks several times of modular constructions, 217 which he understands as the basis of an organic development that has retained a spiritual core. Feldman criticizes in no uncertain terms the dominance of serial techniques filled with mathematics that have been predominant in contemporary music events in Darmstadt, Witten, and Donaueschingen in the years since 1947. “It may seem strange to call Boulez and Stockhausen popularizers, but that’s what they are. They glamorized Schoenberg and Webern, now they’re glamorizing something else.” 218 Nevertheless, this cannot be described as a mass phenomenon reaching out beyond the narrow circles of contemporary music or even a popularity, as Helga de la Motte-Haber notes, with a glance at a 1979 survey by the Swiss Radio and Television Company. 219 Irritation leads to innovations. In the 1960s the new music scene was considerably disturbed by György Ligeti and became aware of a new direction. Since the sensation caused by Igor Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring in Paris in March 1913, criticism in the press has been seen as a seal of quality among artists. “Ligeti called the entirely negative notices for his Atmosphères the best review I have had in my life. ‘Everything is at a complete standstill; during the nine minutes the piece lasts, which stretches to an eternity, absolutely nothing happens.” 220 Ligeti’s pleasure in the negative criticism is only seemingly paradoxical; in the critics’ bafflement, the composer recognized

NEUROMUSICOLOGY—NEUROARCHITECTURE 107 György Ligeti, Continuum for harpsichord (1968) © 1970 SCHOTT MUSIC, Mainz