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122 to the position and

122 to the position and importance of their occupants. The house creates the space within which a communal life formed according to a system of rules emerges. The interaction of living and the social structure and self-image of communal life are dependent on this—a pattern that can be transferred to any cultural community. The image of the person is always reflected in organized forms of living and dwelling and particularly so in all constructive stages of planning through to the erection of the building. Quality and livability always have a long prehistory. Clients and architects determine the framework. The way our lives are organized in spaces reflects the way we live. Since the aforementioned positions of Muthesius, Le Corbusier, and Steiner concern competing types that are influenced by changing fashions and values in respect of preferred materials and forms, it is important to consider these types and their origins and reception in more detail. Ethics of Living The Deutscher Werkbund [German Association of Craftsmen] and the early criticism of functionalism combine experiences and theories that began with the Arts and Crafts Movement in England and the United States— represented by William Richard Lethaby (1857–1931), Sir Thomas Graham Jackson (1835–1924), Charles Francis Annesley Voysey (1857–1941), Charles Robert Ashbee (1863–1942), and Geoffrey Scott (1884–1929)—and became the basis of the ideas of Hermann Muthesius (1863–1927). Muthesius spent seven years in England studying architecture and the history of architecture before producing the three-volume collection of his experiences entitled The English House (1904). During the years between the founding of the Deutscher Werkbund (1907) and his death in 1927—he was struck by a tram while visiting a building site in Berlin-Steglitz—Muthesius, a Prussian building officer, architect, and author of many publications, became deeply critical of the contemporary rationalization of living. After his death his ideas and his buildings were soon forgotten. However, the background of his architectural opinions, the English country house, whose layout and interrelationship with the image of the feudal community he adopted and made the basis for the plan of the house, would continue to exist as a concept, at least in its approach. His main concern was to introduce the value of community living into contemporary architecture as the basis of planning. According to Muthesius, the true value lies in the house itself and the way the parts of the building are arranged so they always function as an ensemble. He was musically inclined and trained in the theory and practice of music; he knew about the material composition and resonances of rooms and saw the house as the basis of all kinds of aesthetic education. “It is obvious that here the house alone can provide the basis for our artistic education

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