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170 that large windows

170 that large windows would divert the concentration of schoolchildren and students, but it later turned out that large windows have a positive effects on learning behavior because they provide stimuli. The structure and layout of easily identifiable hallways and stairs was (again?) taken over from the field of Alzheimer’s research. 327 Spatial orientation and adaptation to new situations are described by Kayan as individually determined neural activities that rely on recallable memory stores, with which children can find their way intuitively in new spaces. She also makes use of a description that can function as a pattern and memory of those adaptations that lead to success 328 —in this case, to success in rediscovering rooms in strange buildings, a cognitive process that can no longer be assumed to be functioning in small children and people with age-related impairment. There is an important suggestion that the activity of our senses can adapt to different surroundings in such a way that this appears to be inherent in the individual disposition of our neurons. 329 According to Kayan, while the other senses, such as sight, hearing, and smell, work independently of one another, all the senses seem to combine in the sense of touch. The sense of touch is therefore accorded a special position in the neuroscientific planning of architectural spaces. 330 This has an impact on the composition of all the interior surfaces; the tactile experience, the visibility, and absorption properties of walls, ceilings, and floors point to the fact that orientation in a building is due to a multisensory combination of light, shadow, sound, and resonance, the sensual composition of the material, and the spatial divisions. 331 Bernhard Waldenfels has introduced the concept of Findigkeit (ingenuity or resourcefulness) to describe the individual’s movement in a room and his capacity for multiple forms of orientation. It is a concept that “is supported by experience that is anchored in phenomenology.” 332 The procedures described by Waldenfels, looking back to the philosophy of antiquity, which he can trace through as far as Merleau-Ponty, are evidence of the fact that basic features of a knowledge of the importance of orientation in space have been known for at least 2,000 years. However, there is a standard experiment that provides evidence of the effects of differing spaces on mammals, discussed below. The effect of stimulating surroundings on the development of cognitive performance was investigated in an experiment with thirty-six rats that were placed for a period of thirty days in three different cages. They had the same food, free access to drinking water, and the same lighting; the differences to be tested in the experiment were that the cages were of different sizes and had different furnishings. After thirty days, the brain activity of all the animals was traced. It was shown that the animals living in a larger cage with richer furnishings and diverse materials had developed distinctly greater brain activity and action skills than those that had to live in smaller and very small cages. Visible evidence of this was also shown through imaging proce-

POTENTIALS OF NEUROARCHITECTURE 171 r Christoph Mäckler, Opera Tower, Frankfurt am Main (2010) w Christoph Mäckler, Goethestrasse 34, Frankfurt am Main (renovation 2016) ssv Christoph Mäckler, Opera Tower, Frankfurt am Main (2010) ssw Emil Fahrenkamp, Shell Building, Reichpietschufer 60–62, Berlin (1932)