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Water treatment

Development and Evaluation of Multistage Filtration Plants An Innovative, Robust and Efficient Water Treatment Technology By Gerardo Galvis, Eng., M.Sc. Thesis Submitted to the University of Surrey for Fulfilment of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) 1999 CEHE, Centre for Environmental Health Engineering School of Engineering in the Environment University of Surrey, United Kingdom Guildford, Surrey GU2 5XH

  • Page 2 and 3: SUMMARY 1. This thesis addresses th
  • Page 4 and 5: COPYRIGHT The copyright of this the
  • Page 6 and 7: HGF: HGFS: ICFES: IDEAM: IDRC: IDWS
  • Page 8 and 9: SYMBOLS º Degrees ºC Celsius degr
  • Page 10 and 11: GREEK LETTERS α significance level
  • Page 12 and 13: 2.9 An Innovative Multistage Filtra
  • Page 14 and 15: 5.5.2 Operation, maintenance, and a
  • Page 16 and 17: eporting procedures for the key ser
  • Page 18 and 19: due to poor catchment protection pe
  • Page 20 and 21: The problems of affordability and t
  • Page 22 and 23: • Terminal Water Disinfection. Th
  • Page 24 and 25: political decisions and reforms. In
  • Page 26 and 27: The early filters were never comple
  • Page 28 and 29: 2.2 Health Risks Associated with Dr
  • Page 30 and 31: (GVs) are recommended for 95 of the
  • Page 32 and 33: indicators (EPA, 1989; Ford and Col
  • Page 34 and 35: al., 1985). In Europe, the SSF tech
  • Page 36 and 37: into the filter or in the effluent.
  • Page 38 and 39: in which ∆C is the concentration
  • Page 40 and 41: If the distribution of the specific
  • Page 42 and 43: according to eq. 2.11, η D , would
  • Page 44 and 45: Bellamy (1985) reports a total coli
  • Page 46 and 47: Scraped sand should be washed and s
  • Page 48 and 49: of bacterial predators present in t
  • Page 50 and 51: organic compounds in the range of 3
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    2.7 Overcoming the Water Quality Li

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    mgl -1 . Changes in the sediment tr

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    plain sedimentation and because of

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    der Waals forces, and Brownian diff

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    Grain size (d c ) and filter length

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    the capacity to deal regularly with

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    Based on the author's experience in

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    mgl -1 , and operating at filtratio

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    mm, and up to a filter deposit (σ)

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    80%. Only one excavation point in t

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    in series was begun in 1848 by a co

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    In spite that headloss development

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    Flow direction reduces interference

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    1000.0 100.0 ) Turbidity (NTU) 10.0

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    Unit processes or water treatment p

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    2.11 Research Objectives, Approach

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    The Cauca River, the main river in

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    100 Cumulative Frequency (%) 10 1 1

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    uilt in the premises of the main wa

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    The first phase of the station, inc

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    DyGF C DyGF B to DGFS to HGF Raw Wa

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    Operation and maintenance criteria.

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    Table 3.2 Maintenance criteria and

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    Table 3.4 Analytical water treatmen

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    Data analysis. Data were analysed t

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    Table 3.5 Analysis of Variance (ANO

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    direct rapid filtration water treat

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    3.2.2.1. Water quality changes in D

  • Page 109 and 110:

    Table 3.9 Mean removal efficiencies

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    3.2.2.3 Hydraulic related aspects o

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    these peaks when filtration rates a

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    at the higher mean filtration rates

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    units designed with this criterion

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    until the beginning of March 1991,

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    espectively. SSF 3 (after MHGF) pro

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    Table 3.18. Descriptive statistics

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    Table 3.19. Descriptive statistics

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    100 Filtration rate = 0.3 mh -1 100

  • Page 131 and 132:

    Tables 3.22 Comparative analyses of

  • Page 133 and 134:

    The results shown in table 3.22 to

  • Page 135 and 136:

    Headlosses in HGF were 14 cm at the

  • Page 137 and 138:

    concentrated in the intermediate gr

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    SSF 2 (after UGFL) and SSF 3 (after

  • Page 141 and 142:

    Figure 3.26. Schematic view of MSF

  • Page 143 and 144:

    adequate from a water quality impro

  • Page 145 and 146:

    Table 3.33. Water volumes required

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    Microbiological water quality impro

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    specialised literature. Based on th

  • Page 151 and 152:

    4. MULTISTAGE FILTRATION EXPERIENCE

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    The SSF plants built in Colombia up

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    Photo 4.4 Initial water treatment p

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    during the rainy periods. Being nea

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    • Turbidity of raw water, settled

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    Photo 4.8. Participatory workshop w

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    Photo 4.12. Members of community ba

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    Table 4.1 Basic characteristics of

  • Page 168 and 169:

    excess water. Flow was measured by

  • Page 170 and 171:

    Figure 4.5 Layout of Colombo MSF pl

  • Page 172 and 173:

    Figure 4.7 Layout of Shaloom MSF pl

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    Figure 4.10. Layout of Marina MSF p

  • Page 176 and 177:

    Table 4.3 Sampling points and frequ

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    Table 4.5 Descriptive Statistics fo

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    Faecal contamination levels were ev

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    100000 Faecal Coliforms (CFU/100 ml

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    its short filter runs. In fact, thi

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    4.4.2.5 Operation and Maintenance a

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    Photo 4.22 Bottom drainage of an up

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    • Initial SSF plants in Colombia

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    Photos 4.27. Movable drainage devic

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    emoval efficiencies. This plant sho

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    In 1988, The Cinara Institute with

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    Based on the practical experience w

  • Page 201 and 202:

    5.5.3 Cost comparison with conventi

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    Table 5.3. Time required for conduc

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    100 A C: Partial Direct Constructio

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    1000 C: Overall Construction Costs

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    6 SELECTION OF MULTISTAGE FILTRATIO

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    acteria in the effluents of MSF alt

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    A Cumulative frequency (%) 100 80 6

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    Table 6.2. Individual (at each filt

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    NTU). But treatment line 2 (DyGF +

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    6.4 Selection of MSF Alternatives T

  • Page 221 and 222:

    values ≤ 5 PCU. However, effluent

  • Page 223 and 224:

    Mean Max Y 4 < 15,000 < 45,000 DyGF

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    Sims and Slezak (1991) identified a

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    international agencies during the g

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    7 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS B

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    At least 98% of the effluent sample

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    • Construction costs and cost mod

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    Canepa, L. (1982) Filtros de Arena

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    Ellis, K.V. (1985) Slow Sand Filtra

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    Second UNDP Symposium on Water Sect

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    Lambert, S.D. and Graham, N.J.D. (1

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    Pardón, M. and Lloyd, B. (1994) Sl

  • Page 245 and 246:

    Stein, P.C. (1940) Study of the The

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    WHO, (1993) Guidelines for Drinking

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    Annex 1: Accessories for Multistage

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    A1.2 Maintenance facilitating devic

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    however, some recovery of velocity

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    Figure A2-3: Manifold arrangement i

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    Annex 3: Information on analytical

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    Annex 4: Example of F-Test (Analysi

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    Table A.4.3 SS removal efficiencies

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    values (Mendenhall, 1997). Tukey te

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    Figure A5-2 Residence time density

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    Table A5-2 Calculation of F (t) and

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    Annex 7: Descriptive Statistics and

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    Table A7-2. Descriptive statistics

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    Tables A7-4 Removal efficiencies of

  • Page 277 and 278:

    Tables A7-6 Removal efficiencies of

  • Page 279 and 280:

    Models and partial direct construct

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