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Water treatment

ates (figure 3.17 B).

ates (figure 3.17 B). However, at the highest tested value (4.8 mh -1 ) only 50% of sludge was removed in the upper gravel layer and the other 50% was equally distributed between the other two layers, showing clearly a deeper penetration of solids into the gravel bed. The results summarised in figure 3.17 and obtained after processing Cauca River water indicate that initial filtration rates should be ≤ 3.7 mh -1 . Initial filtration rates should be even lower, particularly in small water supply systems with only two units running in parallel, allowing room for higher values during cleaning procedures of parallel units. However, specific observations may be necessary to decide about initial filtration rates when processing water from different water sources. 3.2.4 Coarse gravel filtration lines working in series with SSF units Coarse gravel filtration (CGF) lines drew water from a common unit, the constant head feeder tank identified as 05 in figure 3.8. The water collected in this tank after DyGF is identified in this study as integrated water. An overview of the integrated water quality to be treated by the CGF lines working in series with SSF units is shown in table 3.15. After DyGF integrated water still shows high pollution levels and constitutes a challenge to the subsequent treatment stages. Table 3.15 Descriptive statistics for integrated water quality parameters. March 1991- February 1993 Parameters No. Standard Mean (Data) deviation Min Max. Percentile 90 Percentile 95 Faecal Coliforms (CFU/100ml) 143 17,493 25,123 2,000 169,667 39,800 50,900 Turbidity (NTU) 1,584 40 49 2 600 80 120 Total Solids (mgl -1 ) 18 128 42 95 279 148 175 Suspended Solids (mgl -1 ) 145 40 78 3 619 89 166 Volatile Solids (mgl -1 ) 17 48 14 30 91 58 69 Colour (PCU) 145 49 36 10 240 80 122 Chemical Oxygen Demand (mgl -1 ) 18

until the beginning of March 1991, to produce consistently positive removal efficiencies and frequent low effluent turbidities (

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