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galvis

Water treatment

2.9 An Innovative

2.9 An Innovative Multistage Filtration Water Treatment Approach 63 2.10 Relevance and Significance of the Present Research Work 66 2.11 Research Objectives, Approach and Hypotheses 68 3 MULTISTAGE FILTRATION STUDIES WITH PILOT SCALE SYSTEM 69 3.1 Materials and Methods 69 3.1.1 Study area 69 3.1.2 Preliminary studies with MSF pilot units 70 3.1.3 The research and technology transfer station at Puerto Mallarino 73 3.1.4 Multistage filtration pilot system 76 3.1.5 Research phases and periods 76 3.1.6 Sampling and frequency 80 3.1.7 Analytical methods 83 3.1.8 Data management 85 3.2 Results and Specific Discussion 89 3.2.1 Raw water 89 3.2.2 Dynamic gravel filtration (DyGF) units 91 3.2.2.1 Water quality changes in DyGF units 92 3.2.2.2 Comparative analysis of filtration rates in DyGF units 94 3.2.2.3 Hydraulic related aspects of DyGF units 96 3.2.2.4 Total cleaning cycle lengths and productivity in DyGF units 99 3.2.3 Specific studies on dynamic gravel filtration units 100 3.2.4 Coarse gravel filtration lines working in series with SSF units 103 3.2.4.1 Water quality changes in CGF lines and SSF units 105 3.2.4.2 Comparative analysis of different CGF alternatives 113 3.2.4.3 Filtration run lengths and headlosses in CGF units 117 3.2.4.4 Run lengths, headlosses, and Silt test in SSF units 121 3.2.5 Specific studies on CGF lines working in series with SSF units 123 3.2.5.1 Water quality changes CGF lines working in series with SSF units 125 3.2.5.2 Hydraulic performance of CGF lines 126 3.2.5.3 Operation and maintenance aspects of CGF lines 127 3.3 General Discussion 128 3.3.1 Dynamic gravel filtration (DyGF) 128 3.3.2 Coarse gravel and slow sand filtration 129 3.3.3 Multistage filtration after the pilot system study at Puerto Mallarino 133 xi

4 MULTISTAGE FILTRATION EXPERIENCIES WITH FULL SCALE SYSTEM 134 4.1 An Overview of the Institutions in the WS&S Sector in Colombia 134 4.2 Antecedents to Full-scale MSF Plants Monitored during the Present Study 135 4.3 Looking for a Learning Environment in Transferring MSF Technology 142 4.4 Monitoring Full Scale Multistage Filtration Plants 143 4.4.1 Materials and methods 143 4.4.1.1 Study area 143 4.4.1.2 Basic characteristics or local organisations running the MSF plants 147 4.4.1.3 Main characteristics of multistage filtration plants 149 4.4.1.4 Sampling and frequency 150 4.4.1.5 Analytical methods 150 4.4.1.6 Data management 158 4.4.2 Results and specific discussion 158 4.4.2.1 Raw water 158 4.4.2.2 Water quality changes in multi-stage filtration plants 162 4.4.2.3 Run lengths and productivity in SSF units 165 4.4.2.4 Ripening period after resanding a SSF unit in Retiro MSF plant 166 4.4.2.5 Operation and Maintenance aspects of MSF plants 167 4.4.2.6 Observations concerning devices and hydraulic facilities in MSF plants 168 4.4.3 General discussion 172 4.4.3.1 Raw water sources to MSF plants 172 4.4.3.2 Removal efficiencies in MSF plants 175 4.4.3.3 Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of MSF plants 176 5 COST OF MULTISTAGE FILTRATION 177 5.1 Introduction 177 5.2 Background 177 5.3 Cost Characteristics 179 5.3.1 Initial capital investment cost 179 5.3.2 Operation, maintenance and administration costs 179 5.4 Objectives 180 5.5 Methodology 180 5.5.1 Initial investment cost 180 xii

  • Page 1 and 2: Development and Evaluation of Multi
  • Page 3 and 4: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To my supervisor,
  • Page 5 and 6: ABBREVIATIONS ABNT: Acuavalle: ACV:
  • Page 7 and 8: SOCs: Synthetic Organic Chemicals S
  • Page 9 and 10: u c V V f Vs uniformity coefficient
  • Page 11: TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 1
  • Page 15 and 16: 1 INTRODUCTION Water is essential f
  • Page 17 and 18: Table 1.2 Access to WS&S in Colombi
  • Page 19 and 20: Table 1.5 Safe drinking water cover
  • Page 21 and 22: 1.2 Multiple Barriers Strategy and
  • Page 23 and 24: 2 OVERCOMING THE LIMITATIONS OF SLO
  • Page 25 and 26: adjustment, are among the technolog
  • Page 27 and 28: On January 14, 1829, Simpson’s on
  • Page 29 and 30: With increasing life expectancy, en
  • Page 31 and 32: Table 2.2 Treatments steps recommen
  • Page 33 and 34: In table 2.3, WHO guideline values
  • Page 35 and 36: 2.5 The Slow Sand Filtration Proces
  • Page 37 and 38: When the particles are very close t
  • Page 39 and 40: in which p 0 is the clean media por
  • Page 41 and 42: Yao et al (1971) related the remova
  • Page 43 and 44: compensate for the increase in the
  • Page 45 and 46: can be applied, but intermittent op
  • Page 47 and 48: Table 2.4 Comparison of design crit
  • Page 49 and 50: Although accepted as indirect indic
  • Page 51 and 52: 50% when the temperature falls from
  • Page 53 and 54: Figure 2.9 Flow diagram of the wate
  • Page 55 and 56: ut higher running costs, since more
  • Page 57 and 58: Headloss and flow control. Final he
  • Page 59 and 60: Figure 2.13 Influence of flow condi
  • Page 61 and 62: Operation and maintenance (O & M).
  • Page 63 and 64:

    in parallel (Galvis, 1983; Smet et

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    cleaning simple, DyGF should behave

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    case of Dortmund (Germany), the HGF

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    Table 2.9 Data about three experien

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    Some points of discussion about HGF

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    and 600-800 NTU) and different filt

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    the HGF units of Aesch (see table 2

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    in spite of the low removal efficie

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    order to overcome the water quality

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    full-scale units. In this research,

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    3 MULTISTAGE FILTRATION STUDIES WIT

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    in the case of UGFL. Initially, it

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    • Bigger and better-instrumented

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    l Figure 3.7 Plan view of Cinara's

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    The present research work was divid

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    Table 3.1. Design parameters, grave

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    Figure 3.9. Piezometer distribution

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    were used to collect samples for DO

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    were poured into a funnel using fil

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    H 0 : H a : Treatment levels workin

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    3.2 Results and Specific Discussion

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    3.2.2 Dynamic gravel filtration (Dy

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    Mean faecal coliform removal effici

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    Table 3.10 Comparative analysis of

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    DyGF-A had flow reductions in the r

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    The experimental data used to produ

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    Previous observations were further

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    ates (figure 3.17 B). However, at t

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    Longer “initial-ripening” perio

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    Table 3.17. Descriptive statistics

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    100 Filtration rate = 0.3 mh -1 100

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    After the present experience, faeca

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    nature of the organic matter and th

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    Table 3.24 Comparative analyses of

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    3.2.4.3. Filtration run lengths and

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    deep bed filter (data not included

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    and operational considerations Pard

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    than in sand samples from other SSF

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    Step dose tracer tests were made at

  • Page 144 and 145:

    for HGFS and from 3 to 5 for HGF. T

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    Constant and declining filtration r

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    The efficiency levels summarised be

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    Surface area of CGF and SSF units.

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    community based organisations and l

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    systems. All these systems were fed

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    Parts of the suburban settlements o

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    Figure 4.2. Layout of Retiro MSF pl

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    Traditionally, in the WS&S of Colom

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    Photo 4.10. Partial cleaning activi

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    Figure 4.3 Location of full-scale M

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    4.4.1.3 Main characteristics of mul

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    Figure 4.4 Layout of Restrepo MSF p

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    Figure 4.6 Layout of Javeriana MSF

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    Figure 4.9 Layout of Cañasgordas M

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    Figure 4.11. Layout of Ceylan MSF p

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    Table 4.4 Descriptive statistics fo

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    Water sources in the coffee region

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    Filterability results seem to under

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    Table 4.8 Mean removal efficiencies

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    The length of this ripening period

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    in Peru (Pardon, 1989) and Colombia

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    Photo 4.24 Drainage facilities in u

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    the Cauca Valley. This is not the c

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    Pardon (1989) reports similar evide

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    5. COST OF MULTI-STAGE FILTRATION P

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    ecame formally established as WS en

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    Models for assessing construction q

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    MSF system can then be calculated o

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    5.7 Cost Model for the Cali Area an

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    Table 5.8. Annual labour costs due

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    5.8 General Discussion The followin

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    systems. The differences between MS

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    guideline for colour is < 15 PCU (W

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    Table 6.1. Individual (at each trea

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    Table 6.3. Individual (at each trea

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    As shown in tables 6.1 and 6.3, col

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    UGFL 0.45 UGFS 0.45 (32;51;85) (44;

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    Table 6.4. An example of identifica

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    MSF technology showed great flexibi

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    In harmony with the new development

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    epresents the risk the community ha

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    The selection of MSF alternatives i

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    scouring and transporting away prev

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    REFERENCES ABNT, (1989) NB-592 Proj

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    Craun, G.F., Bull, R.J., Clark, R.M

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    Drinking Water Disinfection, ed. by

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    Huisman, L. (1989) Plain Sedimentat

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    Mendenhall, W. and Sincich, T. (199

  • Page 244 and 245:

    Ridley, J.E. (1967) Experience in t

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    Visscher, J.T. and Galvis, G. (1992

  • Page 248 and 249:

    ANNEXES Annex 1: Accessories for Mu

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    aw water. The red colour is used fo

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    Annex 2: Design of Manifolds Manifo

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    + q 2 Q1 (1.2 qn + qn) (2.2 qn) = =

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    R 1 = (total orifice area / lateral

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    0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00

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    Table A.4-2 General notation for th

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    Box A4-3. Sum of Square Error (SSE)

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    Annex 5: Residence times in coarse

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    Table A5-1 Percentage of incoming w

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    Annex 6 Number and Type of Valves N

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    Table A7-1. Descriptive statistics

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    Tables A7-3 Removal efficiencies of

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    Tables A7-5 Removal efficiencies of

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    Construction quantities of DyGF com

  • Page 280:

    Net present value (US$) of MSF and

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