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galvis

Water treatment

Step dose tracer tests

Step dose tracer tests were made at the beginning and the end of three monthly filter runs to establish the hydraulic performance of the CGF lines. Sodium chloride was used as a tracer. A calibration curve for conductivity and sodium chloride was made to decide on the concentration dose (included in Annex 5). Concentration doses around 200 mgl -1 of sodium chloride were used. A WTW-LF 96 conductivity meter was utilised for measurements. Theoretical hydraulic retention times (T 0 ) in CGF lines were estimated to be 5.1 h for UGFS, 5.7 for HGFS, and 6.9 for HGF, including inlet and outlet structures as well as supernatant water layers in UGFS. The continuous tracer dose (C 0 ) was applied at the inlet weir of each CGF line. Influent integrated water (C i ), and CGF effluent (C e ) conductivity levels were monitored frequently for twice the theoretical hydraulic retention time (T 0 ). The net effluent conductivity levels (C n = C e - C i ) in the effluent CGF lines were obtained as a function of elapsed time (t) from the beginning of the tracer test. The fractions of water discharged from the CGF lines as a function of t (F (t)) were calculated as C n (t) divided by C n at the end of the test, when C n became practically constant. The fractions of water remaining inside the CGF line at time t were calculated as 1- F (t). Water fractions discharged from the CGF lines between 50%< t/T o

adequate from a water quality improvement view. Still, In those local conditions in which the cost of the gravel beds are relatively high UGFS, and HGFS may be better CGF alternatives. Table 3.30. Descriptive statistics for water quality changes in CGF lines and SSF units. April 1995 June 1996. Statistics Raw water Int. (1) . Line 1 Line 2 Line 3 water HGF UGFS SSF 1 HGFS SSF 3 SSF 4 Suspended Solids (mgl -1 ) Mean 140 59 1.5 0.2 3.4 0.2 3.6 0.2 SD 106 59 2.4 0.2 4.5 0.3 4.8 0.3 Minimum 19 4 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Maximum 550 332 13 1.1 25 1.9 24 1.9 Data (N) 79 79 79 79 79 79 79 79 Turbidity (NTU) Median 64 45 10 2.9 16 3.5 16 3.9 Mean 92 67 13 4.3 20 5.5 20 5.9 SD 88 66 10 4.2 15 4.9 15 7 Minimum 14 10 2 0.4 3 0.7 3.1 0.4 Maximum 760 450 56 25 76 32 84 91 Data (N) 362 362 362 362 362 362 362 362 Faecal Coliforms (CFU/100 ml) Mean 94,392 40,329 157 5.3 1,557 4.8 1,883 8 SD 57,020 33,034 86.7 10 2,136 13 2,577 11.5 Minimum 7,300 2,800 21 0 102 0 148 0 Maximum 320,000 175,000 402 68 14,700 91 16,200 59 Data (N) 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 (1) Integrated water after DyGF 3.2.5.2. Hydraulic performance of CGF lines. Hydraulic performance of UGFS, HGFS and HGF was studied at the beginning and end of three CGF runs during the period May 23 to August 8 1995. Six tracer tests were performed. Comparisons were made between the fraction of water discharged during 50% < t/T o

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