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Water treatment

4.4.1.3 Main

4.4.1.3 Main characteristics of multistage filtration plants. After the failure with the pilot plants built in the coffee region, rather conservative design criteria were adopted for Ceylan, Restrepo and Marina treatment plants. They were assumed from considering the little experience with the technology and the possible impact of discharges upstream of the water intakes, originated from the cleaning process of coffee beans, scattered human settlements in coffee farms, and cattle breeding in some areas. The systems located close to Cali, El Retiro, Cañas Gordas, La Rivera, Shaloom and Colombo, all receive raw water from the Pance River. The water intake for each system is different and the abstraction channels are exposed to different contamination sources before reaching the treatment plants. The human pollution of Pance River above the water intakes varies during weekdays, being higher during weekends since Pance River is a popular recreation site for the citizens of Cali during resting days. The catchment area includes abandoned carbon mines. All the systems include a DyGF, except for those in Ceylan, Marina, Restrepo and Rivera. DyGF technology was still being tested when Ceylan, Marina and Restrepo were designed. Rivera benefits from the existence of a reservoir (4,750 m 3 ) before the treatment plant. Most plants have UCGF (upflow coarse gravel filtration) alternatives as first or second (after DyGF) filtration stage. Three options of UCGF are used. UGFL (upflow gravel filtration in layers) in Retiro, Rivera, Shaloom and Colombo. UGFS 2 (upflow gravel filtration with 2 filtering units in series) in Cañasgordas and Ceylan. UGFS 3 (upflow gravel filtration with 3 filtering units in series) in Marina. Javeriana and Restrepo have HGF with two and three compartments respectively. All plants have SSF as the final filtration stage. A general description of the key characteristics of the systems is presented in table 4.2. All gravel filtration units were built in reinforced concrete or brickwork. Perforated PVC pipes are used to distribute influent water in the case of UCGF options or drainage water during partial hydraulic cleaning procedures of all CGF alternatives. The initial height of sand in all plants is around 1.00 m, including a support bed of 0.20 to 0.25 m, except in Colombo and Shaloom that the filter bed is 1.2 m and 0.80 respectively. The effective size (D 10 ) and Uniformity Coefficient (Uc) of sand samples from SSF units were in the ranges of 15 to 30mm and 2.0 to 2.5 respectively. Operation and maintenance criteria. During the planning and implementation process of each MSF plant, a similar set of operation and maintenance (O&M) criteria to that applied with the pilot plants (summarised in table 3.2) was recommended to each community or local level organisation. Operational staffs were trained on the job by Cinara staff, working in collaboration with regional authorities involved in the water supply and sanitation sector. Additionally, operational and administrative staffs were periodically invited to participatory activities, which included aspects of O&M. Flow control. Each MSF plant was designed with inlet control facilities by means of a structure that allowed regulation and measuring of the influent flow, as well as discharge of 149

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