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Water treatment

excess water. Flow was

excess water. Flow was measured by means of a calibration scale directly installed in the access channel (see annex 1), which was volumetrically calibrated at the plant site. Table 4.2 Design parameter and filter media bed specifications of full–scale MSF plants Treatment plant El Retiro 20(15.1) Cañasgordas 10.5 (8.9) Flow (ls -1 ) (1) Type No. Pre-treatment system Area (m 2 ) (2) Vf (mh -1 ) (1) Filter media Size (mm) Length (m) DyGF 3 39.2 1.8 (1.4) 25 – 6 0.6 UGFL 5 100 0.7 (0.5) 25 – 3 0.9 DyGF 1 37 10.2 (8.7) 25 – 6 0.3 UGFS 2 2 46 0.8 (0.7) 25 – 3 2.0 No. SSF Area (m 2 ) (2) Vf (mh -1 ) (1) 4 540 0.15 (0.13) 3 275 0.14 (0.12) La Rivera 12.0(3.8) UGFL 2 68.6 0.6 (0.2) 38 – 3 1.2 2 198 0.20 (0.07) Javeriana 3.2 (1.8) DyGF 1 4.1 2.6 (1.6) 25 – 6 0.3 HGF 2 7.4 1.5 (0.9) 25 – 3 4.0 2 67.4 0.17 (0.10) Shaloom 1.0 (1.0) DyGF 1 2.4 1.5 (1.5) 25 – 6 0.6 UGFL 1 6.0 0.6 (0.6) 25 – 3 1.5 2 24.0 0.15 (0.15) Ceylan 10.5 (9.4) UGFS 2 2 50.4 0.8 (0.7) 25 – 6 2.0 2 252 0.15 (0.13) Colombo 1.0 (0.6) DyGF 1 2.4 1.5 (0.9) 25 – 6 0.6 UGFL 1 4.7 0.8 (0.5) 25 – 3 1.3 2 27 0.13 (0.08) La Marina 7.0 (7.0) UGFS 3 2 42 0.6 (0.6) 25 – 6 1.8 2 168 0.16 (0.16) Restrepo 0.7 (0.8) HGF 2 4 0.6 (0.7) 19 – 6 7.0 2 16.8 0.15 (0.17) (1) Mean operational flows and filtration rates (Vf) are included between brackets (2) Cross sectional area Hydraulic headlosses. The operator could visually control headlosses in the units by differential levels between influent and effluent flow because all units were with inlet control. 4.4.1.4 Sampling and frequency Sampling points were collected from the raw water and at the end of each main filtration stage. Figure 4.4 and photo 4.14 illustrates the location of sampling points in the Restrepo MSF plant. Similar sampling points were located in other treatment plants. Planned sampling frequencies during the period October 1990 to July 1992 are summarised in table 4.3. Initially, parallel units were monitored independently but due to the similar results obtained and to economic constraints, integrated samples were collected at each treatment stage. After July 1992 the sampling frequency was gradually reduced and finally stopped for the coffee region in December 1998. The plants nearby Cali are still being monitored with the support of local institutions or community based organisations. Samples were collected using similar procedures to those described for the MSF pilot system described in Section 3.1.6 but for faecal coliform analysis greater sample volumes were collected. Samples were refrigerated while transported to the laboratory facilities at Puerto Mallarino. 4.4.1.5 Analytical Methods Sample obtained throughout the MSF full scale plants were analysed by the same methods as those from the MSF pilot system at Puerto Mallarino (Section 3.1.7), except for faecal coliforms, which were analysed with the DelAgua test kit (DelAgua, 1989). 150

Figure 4.4 Layout of Restrepo MSF plant. CIDER, Restrepo, Cauca Valley, Colombia. HGF 2-1 HGF 2-3 HGF 2-2 HGF 1-3 HGF 1-2 HGF 1-1 01 Raw Water Photo 4.14 Restrepo MSF plant. CIDER, Restrepo, Cauca Valley, Colombia. 151

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