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galvis

Water treatment

Water sources in the

Water sources in the coffee region (Marina, Ceylan, and Restrepo) had mean turbidity values in the range 2.8 (Ceylan) to 7.5 NTU (Restrepo) and maximum in the range 15 (Ceylan) to 112 NTU (Marina). Water sources for other MSF plants had mean turbidity values in the range 3.8 (Shaloom) to 24 NTU (Javeriana) and maximum in the range 22 (Shaloom) to 300 NTU (Javeriana) respectively. The lowest and highest turbidity levels were observed in Ceylan and Javeriana respectively. Close to 60% of the raw water samples collected in Cañasgordas, Retiro and Colombo had turbidities values below 10 NTU, while 85 to 95% of the raw water samples from Restrepo, Rivera, Marina, Shaloom and Ceylan had turbidities values below 10 NTU. Some of these raw water sources (e.g. Ceylan and Shaloom) seem to require only SSF stage to deal with their turbidity levels. However, based on personal contacts with local operators, higher turbidity peaks (few hours of duration) were observed in the water sources than those detected during the monitoring programme. Therefore a combination of DyGF and SSF working in series seems to be advisable to deal with these turbidity levels in raw water sources. Having turbidity data collected during present study and based on data summarised in table 4.2, it seems that some MSF plants were over designed as far as this parameter is concerned. 100 100 Cumulative frequency (%) 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 10 100 1000 Turbidity (NTU) Cumulative frequency (%) 80 60 40 20 0 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 Faecal Coliforms (CFU/100ml) Shaloom Rivera Retiro Restrepo Marina Javeriana Colombo Ceylan Cañas G. Figure 4.12 Cumulative frequencies (%) distribution for turbidity and faecal coliform levels in raw water sources of full-scale MSF plants included in this study. Ceylan, located in the coffee region, had the lowest faecal coliform levels in its raw water source, with mean and maximum values of 330 and 1920 CFU/100 ml respectively. Again, with these faecal contamination levels and the data summarised in table 4.2, Ceylan seems to be over designed. While 50 % of collected raw water samples in Marina and Restrepo, had less than 200 CFU/100 ml, maximum values were higher than 15,000 CFU/100 ml, making necessary more than one filtration stage to avoid overloading SSF units before terminal disinfection. 161

Faecal contamination levels were even higher in the abstraction channels feeding MSF plants located in the hilly areas of Cali. The influent water to Retiro, Rivera, Shaloom and Cañasgordas, had more than 2,000 CFU/100 ml in 50% of collected samples, while Javeriana and Colombo had more than 5,000 and 20,000 CFU/100 respectively. All these contamination levels require more than one filtration stage to avoid overloading SSF units and putting at risk terminal disinfection as safety barrier. The abstraction channels feeding MSF plants in Cali had mean and maximum colour levels in the ranges 15 to 30 PCU and 34 to 200 PCU respectively. Based on reported SSF removal efficiencies for this parameter (table 2.5, Section 2.6), SSF alone would be limited to consistently produce effluents with

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