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Water treatment

Table 5.8. Annual labour

Table 5.8. Annual labour costs due to daily, periodical and occasional O&M tasks in MSF systems. Based on tables 5.3 and 5.4 and labour cost in the Cauca Valley, Colombia, 1999. MSF Alternative Costs (US$/year) Q = 1 ls -1 Q = 5 ls -1 Q = 10 ls -1 Q = 20 ls -1 DyGF + SSF 367 803 1,415 2,131 DyGF + UGFL + SSF 908 1,222 1,938 2,986 DyGF + UGFS (2) + SSF 1,100 1,659 2,270 3,493 DyGF + UGFS (3) + SSF 1,292 1,921 2,794 3,999 Table 5.9. Annual cost due to OM&A in MSF systems. Based on results presented in table 5.8 and procedure described in sections 5.6.2 through 5.6.4. MSF Alternative Costs (US$/year) Q = 1 ls -1 Q = 5 ls -1 Q = 10 ls -1 Q = 20 ls -1 DyGF + SSF 1,175 1,677 2,380 3,203 DyGF + UGFL + SSF 1,797 2,159 2,982 4,187 DyGF + UGFS (2) + SSF 2,018 2,661 3,364 4,770 DyGF + UGFS (3) + SSF 2,239 2,962 3,966 5,352 10000 Anual Cost of Administration, Operation and Maintenance (US$) DyGF + SSF C = 1,110.40 Q 0.33 DyGF + UGFL + SSF C = 1,649.50 Q 0.27 DyGF + UGFS (2)+ SSF C = 1,898.30 Q 0.27 DyGF + UGFS (3)+ SSF C = 2,109.70 Q 0.28 1000 1 10 100 Q: Flow (ls -1 ) Figure 5.2. Annual cost of Operation, maintenance, and administration (OM&A) for different MSF alternatives. Andean Cauca Valley, Colombia. 1999. 5.7.3 Comparison of MSF and conventional RF alternatives With the construction and OM&A cost models obtained in Sections 5.7.1 y 5.7.2 for MSF alternatives, and cost models obtained by Aristizabal (1999) for conventional RF plants, comparisons can be made between these two treatment technologies. Figure 5.3 illustrates construction costs for both MSF alternatives and conventional RF plants. From this it is clear that there is a capital cost advantage in the most robust alternative of MSF (DyGF + UGFS(3) + SSF) up to 8 ls -1 and for the less (DyGF + SSF) up to 21 ls -1 . Above these values, conventional RF plants begin to become competitive. 187

1000 C: Overall Construction Costs (Thousand US$) 100 DyGF + SSF C = 14.78 Q 0.78 DyGF + UGFL + SSF C = 17.52 Q 0.78 DyGF + UGFS (2)+ SSF C = 19.69 Q 0.79 DyGF + UGFS (3)+ SSF C = 21.92 Q 0.79 C onventional C = 53.37 Q 0.36 10 1 10 100 Q: Flow (ls -1 ) Figure 5.3. Overall construction costs of MSF alternatives and conventional RF plants. Cali area, Andean Cauca Valley, Colombia 1999. Considering design periods of 10 and 15 years for MSF and conventional RF plants respectively, a project horizon of 30 years can be adopted. During this period two and three engineering interventions can be planned with the RF and MSF alternatives respectively. Several combinations are possible depending on initial border conditions. A simplification of the problem is to assume that production capacity at the “end” of project horizon is 30 ls -1 to be obtained gradually with three increments of 10 ls -1 with MSF technology and two of 15 ls -1 with RF technology. Assuming this possibility, and using construction and annual OM&A cost models (included in figures 5.1B and 5.2), NPV of all costs can be obtained. Discount rate, r, usually varies in the range of 9 to 15% (Yepes, 1990). A value of 12% is adopted following current practice in the WS&S sector in Colombia. Figure 5.4 summarises NPV calculations including both construction and OM&A costs. The examples illustrated in figures 5.3 and 5.4 show that MSF becomes even more competitive when running costs are included in cost analysis procedures. 1,000,000 C: Net Present Value (US$) 100,000 DyGF + SSF C = 17,269 Q 0.64 DyGF + UGFL + SSF C = 23,500 Q 0.60 DyGF + UGFS (2)+ SSF C = 26,562 Q 0.61 DyGF + UGFS (3)+ SSF C = 29,452 Q 0.61 C onventional C = 97,258 Q 0.40 10,000 1 10 100 Q: Flow (ls -1 ) Figure 5.4. Net present value (NPV) of overall construction costs and annual OM&A costs of MSF alternatives and conventional RF plants. Project horizon of 30 years. Cali area, Andean Cauca Valley, Colombia, 1999 188

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