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Water treatment

ANNEXES Annex 1:

ANNEXES Annex 1: Accessories for Multistage Filtration Plants Annex 2: Design of Manifolds Annex 3: Information on Analytical Techniques Annex 4: Example of F-Test (Analysis of Variance) Application Annex 5: Residence Times in Coarse Gravel Filtration Units Annex 6: Number and type of valves needed for MSF systems Annex 7: Descriptive Statistics and Removal Efficiencies Based on Adjusted Databases of MSF Plants Fulfilling Treatment Objectives Proposed in Section 6.3 229

Annex 1: Accessories for Multistage Filtration Plants The accessories most used in MSF plants can be grouped in two categories: those related to control devices and those related to maintenance activities. A1.1. Control devices for operation This group includes the valves for flow regulation, the calibrated overflow weirs and the flow indicators. A1.1.1. Flow regulation devices The first gate valves Cinara used comprised a metal plate protected with an anti-corrosive paint and operated with a wheel as shown in Figure A1-1 (A). This simple system however, required regular repainting and did not allow fine flow regulation for small discharges (< 10 ls -1 ). Therefore, a different type of gate valve has been established also known as the T-valve (Figure A1-1 (B)) which is more sensitive to the variation in flow. This valve is made out of commercially available materials such as PVC and acrylic. Some quality problems exist with this valve and although it can be produced locally, its cost is not always low, as it is not made on commercial scale. To avoid these types of problems and to ensure the sustainability of the valves, it is recommended to purchase gate or ball valves that are commercially available and that can be easily adapted to different pipe diameters. Figure A1-1: Gate Valves in sheet metal (A) and in PVC and acrylic (B). A1.1.2. Triangular and rectangular weirs The free-flowing water over a weir in an open channel is related to the depth of the water above the crest of the weir. The most common weirs are made of a thin metal or acrylic plate. Figure A1-2 shows two types of weirs. The triangular weir (A) is mostly used for small flow discharge measurements (< 30 ls -1 ). The rectangular weir is used at the outlet side of HGF and DyGF filter boxes (B). Two design elements are important. The flowing water must reach the weir at low velocity, implying that the water surface is smooth and not disturbed by turbulence. Furthermore, the hydraulic head (h) required to calculate the volume of water passing over the weir is the difference between the level of the crest of the weir and the water surface upstream of the weir at a length equivalent to around 6 to 10 times h. A1.1.3. Flow indicator device A flow indicator device has been developed to facilitate the work of the plant operators. This device comprises a calibrated scale directly installed in the access channel to the weirs, painted in different colours (green, yellow and red) to give a clear visual indication of the flow ranges which can be permitted (Figure A1-3). The green zone indicates the conditions under which the plant operates at the design rate. The yellow marks the zones in which the filter operates at a higher or lower but still acceptable rate, usually 20 percent above and 50 to 80 percent below the design flow. It also serves as the zone where the filter can be operated when peak loads in suspended solids are apparent in the A1-1

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    Development and Evaluation of Multi

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To my supervisor,

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    ABBREVIATIONS ABNT: Acuavalle: ACV:

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    SOCs: Synthetic Organic Chemicals S

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    u c V V f Vs uniformity coefficient

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 1

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    4 MULTISTAGE FILTRATION EXPERIENCIE

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    1 INTRODUCTION Water is essential f

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    Table 1.2 Access to WS&S in Colombi

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    Table 1.5 Safe drinking water cover

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    1.2 Multiple Barriers Strategy and

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    2 OVERCOMING THE LIMITATIONS OF SLO

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    adjustment, are among the technolog

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    On January 14, 1829, Simpson’s on

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    With increasing life expectancy, en

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    Table 2.2 Treatments steps recommen

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    In table 2.3, WHO guideline values

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    2.5 The Slow Sand Filtration Proces

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    When the particles are very close t

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    in which p 0 is the clean media por

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    Yao et al (1971) related the remova

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    compensate for the increase in the

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    can be applied, but intermittent op

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    Table 2.4 Comparison of design crit

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    Although accepted as indirect indic

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    50% when the temperature falls from

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    Figure 2.9 Flow diagram of the wate

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    ut higher running costs, since more

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    Headloss and flow control. Final he

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    Figure 2.13 Influence of flow condi

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    Operation and maintenance (O & M).

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    in parallel (Galvis, 1983; Smet et

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    cleaning simple, DyGF should behave

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    case of Dortmund (Germany), the HGF

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    Table 2.9 Data about three experien

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    Some points of discussion about HGF

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    and 600-800 NTU) and different filt

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    the HGF units of Aesch (see table 2

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    in spite of the low removal efficie

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    order to overcome the water quality

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    full-scale units. In this research,

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    3 MULTISTAGE FILTRATION STUDIES WIT

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    in the case of UGFL. Initially, it

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    • Bigger and better-instrumented

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    l Figure 3.7 Plan view of Cinara's

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    The present research work was divid

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    Table 3.1. Design parameters, grave

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    Figure 3.9. Piezometer distribution

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    were used to collect samples for DO

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    were poured into a funnel using fil

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    H 0 : H a : Treatment levels workin

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    3.2 Results and Specific Discussion

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    3.2.2 Dynamic gravel filtration (Dy

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    Mean faecal coliform removal effici

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    Table 3.10 Comparative analysis of

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    DyGF-A had flow reductions in the r

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    The experimental data used to produ

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    Previous observations were further

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    ates (figure 3.17 B). However, at t

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    Longer “initial-ripening” perio

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    Table 3.17. Descriptive statistics

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    100 Filtration rate = 0.3 mh -1 100

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    After the present experience, faeca

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    nature of the organic matter and th

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    Table 3.24 Comparative analyses of

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    3.2.4.3. Filtration run lengths and

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    deep bed filter (data not included

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    and operational considerations Pard

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    than in sand samples from other SSF

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    Step dose tracer tests were made at

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    for HGFS and from 3 to 5 for HGF. T

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    Constant and declining filtration r

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    The efficiency levels summarised be

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    Surface area of CGF and SSF units.

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    community based organisations and l

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    systems. All these systems were fed

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    Parts of the suburban settlements o

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    Figure 4.2. Layout of Retiro MSF pl

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    Traditionally, in the WS&S of Colom

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    Photo 4.10. Partial cleaning activi

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    Figure 4.3 Location of full-scale M

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    4.4.1.3 Main characteristics of mul

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    Figure 4.4 Layout of Restrepo MSF p

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    Figure 4.6 Layout of Javeriana MSF

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    Figure 4.9 Layout of Cañasgordas M

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    Figure 4.11. Layout of Ceylan MSF p

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    Table 4.4 Descriptive statistics fo

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    Water sources in the coffee region

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    Filterability results seem to under

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    Table 4.8 Mean removal efficiencies

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    The length of this ripening period

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    in Peru (Pardon, 1989) and Colombia

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    Photo 4.24 Drainage facilities in u

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    the Cauca Valley. This is not the c

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    Pardon (1989) reports similar evide

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    5. COST OF MULTI-STAGE FILTRATION P

  • Page 198 and 199: ecame formally established as WS en
  • Page 200 and 201: Models for assessing construction q
  • Page 202 and 203: MSF system can then be calculated o
  • Page 204 and 205: 5.7 Cost Model for the Cali Area an
  • Page 206 and 207: Table 5.8. Annual labour costs due
  • Page 208 and 209: 5.8 General Discussion The followin
  • Page 210 and 211: systems. The differences between MS
  • Page 212 and 213: guideline for colour is < 15 PCU (W
  • Page 214 and 215: Table 6.1. Individual (at each trea
  • Page 216 and 217: Table 6.3. Individual (at each trea
  • Page 218 and 219: As shown in tables 6.1 and 6.3, col
  • Page 220 and 221: UGFL 0.45 UGFS 0.45 (32;51;85) (44;
  • Page 222 and 223: Table 6.4. An example of identifica
  • Page 224 and 225: MSF technology showed great flexibi
  • Page 226 and 227: In harmony with the new development
  • Page 228 and 229: epresents the risk the community ha
  • Page 230 and 231: The selection of MSF alternatives i
  • Page 232 and 233: scouring and transporting away prev
  • Page 234 and 235: REFERENCES ABNT, (1989) NB-592 Proj
  • Page 236 and 237: Craun, G.F., Bull, R.J., Clark, R.M
  • Page 238 and 239: Drinking Water Disinfection, ed. by
  • Page 240 and 241: Huisman, L. (1989) Plain Sedimentat
  • Page 242 and 243: Mendenhall, W. and Sincich, T. (199
  • Page 244 and 245: Ridley, J.E. (1967) Experience in t
  • Page 246 and 247: Visscher, J.T. and Galvis, G. (1992
  • Page 250 and 251: aw water. The red colour is used fo
  • Page 252 and 253: Annex 2: Design of Manifolds Manifo
  • Page 254 and 255: + q 2 Q1 (1.2 qn + qn) (2.2 qn) = =
  • Page 256 and 257: R 1 = (total orifice area / lateral
  • Page 258 and 259: 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00
  • Page 260 and 261: Table A.4-2 General notation for th
  • Page 262 and 263: Box A4-3. Sum of Square Error (SSE)
  • Page 264 and 265: Annex 5: Residence times in coarse
  • Page 266 and 267: Table A5-1 Percentage of incoming w
  • Page 268 and 269: Annex 6 Number and Type of Valves N
  • Page 270: Table A7-1. Descriptive statistics
  • Page 274 and 275: Tables A7-3 Removal efficiencies of
  • Page 276 and 277: Tables A7-5 Removal efficiencies of
  • Page 278 and 279: Construction quantities of DyGF com
  • Page 280: Net present value (US$) of MSF and
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