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# galvis

Water treatment

## + q 2 Q1 (1.2 qn + qn)

+ q 2 Q1 (1.2 qn + qn) (2.2 qn) = = = ⇒ n 2 2 q1 n 1 Q1 qn = 0.909 n Q and q1 = 1.091 n (A2 - 4) Furthermore, using R as the ratio a/A (flow area of an orifice or lateral divided by the flow area of the manifold main) and the equations (A2-2), (A2-3), and (A2-4), it is find that ⎛ ß1 = 1.042 = 1.5 - 0.7 ⎜ ⎝ Q /A 1 1.091(Q 1/na) ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ 0.5 ⎛ Rn ⎞ ⇒ 1.042 = 1.5 - 0.7⎜ ⎟ ⎝1.091 ⎠ 0.5 Rn ⎡1.5 - 1.042 ⎤ = 1.091 ⎢ 0.7 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 ⇒ R = 0.47/n ≅ 0.5/n (A2 - 5) With a similar procedure, it could be shown that R would be equal to 0.33/n and 0.15/n for 15 and 10% differences in flow distribution respectively. The result presented in equation (A2-5) can be used as preliminary guideline, until new evidence advises otherwise. Meanwhile, it is interesting to know that the result presented in equation A2-5 is in harmony with design criteria for collecting-flow manifolds recommended by Fair et al (1987) and AWWA - ASCE (1998) for rapid sand filtration. These criteria are summarised in table A2-1. Table A2-1. Summary of design criteria recommended for dividing manifolds in rapid sand filtration (Fair et al 1987; AWWA – ASCE, 1998) Parameter Design criteria R 0 = total orifice area / filter media surface area 0.0015 - 0.005 R 1 = total orifice area / lateral flow area 0.25 – 0.50 R 2 = total lateral flow area / main flow area 0.2 – 0.6 Orifice diameter (mm) 6 - 19 Orifice separation (m) 0.08 – 0.30 Lateral Separation (m) 0.5 – 1.0 Orifice flow velocities (ms -1 ) 4 - 5 Example. In this example, the manifold system is designed for an upflow gravel filter having a surface gravel bed area of 2.1 x 2.7 m per filter unit. The critical situation will arise when the filter is being drained. Flow velocity is estimated at 15 mh -1 . The total output of each filter unit thus will be: Q = (15 mh -1 ) (2.1x2.7 m 2 ) = 113.4 m 3 h -1 = 23.6 ls -1 Based on equation (A2-5), R = total orifice (lateral) area / lateral (main) flow area = 0.5 and assuming orifice diameter of 4.76 mm (3/16”), the relation between number of orifices (n) and lateral (main) diameter (D L ) will be: R = (n a) /A L = 0.5 ⇒ n = 0.5 D L 2 / d o 2 ⇒ n = 0.5 D L 2 / (4.76 mm) 2 ⇒ n = 0.022 D L 2 mm –2 Assuming a lateral (main) with D L = 38.1 mm (1½”), the number of orifices n will be n = 0.022 mm -2 x 1451.2 mm -2 ⇒ n ≅ 32 orifices. Having a total width of 2.1 m, five laterals will be installed, each with two rows of 6.35 mm (1/4”) diameter perforations on their sides, spaced at 12 cm (16 x 0.12 = 1.92 m) placed every 12 cm (16 x 0.12 = 1.92 m), leaving room for installing the manifold main (figure A.2-3). Using again equation (A2-5), R = total lateral area / manifold main flow area = 0.5 and having a lateral diameter of 50.8 mm (2”), the relation between number of laterals (n’) and main diameter (D L ’) will be: n’ = 0.5 D L 2 / d o 2 = 0.5 ⇒ n’ = 0.5 D L ’ 2 / (50.8 mm) 2 ⇒ n’ = 0.000194 D L ’ 2 mm -2 Assuming a main diameter of 152 mm (6”), the number of laterals n’ will be n’= 0.000194 mm -2 x 23104 mm 2 = 4.5 laterals, which would be approximated to 5 laterals. Having a total length of 2.7 m, the laterals spaced at 54-cm (5 x 0.54 = 2.7 m). Figures A.2-3 and A.2-4 illustrate the results of the previous calculations. The flow velocity at the outlet of the main will be: A2-3

Figure A2-3: Manifold arrangement in UGF units including lateral and main pipes. Figure A2-4: Manifold arrangement including orifice distribution in a lateral. V M1 = Q1 0.785A M = 23.6*10− 3m3s−1 0.785(0.15m) −1 = 1.3 ms The headloss originated from laterals discharging into the main can be estimated as: H f ln = 1.5 2 V 2 in g ; V in = Q 0.909x na 1 i m s 23.6 x10− 3 3 −1 −1 = 0.909x = 2.1 ms 5 x0.785 (0.0508m) H f ln −1 −2 (2.1ms ) = 1.5 1.96 ms− 2 = 0.34 m The headloss originated from water entering through orifices into the laterals can be estimated as: 2 L H V2 o f 1.5 ; V Lo = g Lo q L = 0.909 na 23.6x10−3 m3s−1 = 0.909 5 32 x 0.7858 (6.35x10−3m) 2 −1 = 4.2 ms H f Lo (4.2 ms− 1) 2 = 1.5 19.6 ms−2 = 1.35 m Assuming an available hydraulic head of 1.2m at the bottom of the UGF unit, the discharge of the main pipe can be placed at around 1m or more below the bottom of the unit. R 0 = (total orifice area / filter media surface area) in the previous example is R 0 = (5 x 32 x 0.785 (0.00635 m) 2 ) / (2.1 m x 2.7 m) = 0.005 / 1.47 = 0.0009, which is closed to the lower limit of the range shown in table A2-1. A2-4

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Development and Evaluation of Multi

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To my supervisor,

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ABBREVIATIONS ABNT: Acuavalle: ACV:

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SOCs: Synthetic Organic Chemicals S

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u c V V f Vs uniformity coefficient

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4 MULTISTAGE FILTRATION EXPERIENCIE

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1 INTRODUCTION Water is essential f

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Table 1.2 Access to WS&S in Colombi

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Table 1.5 Safe drinking water cover

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1.2 Multiple Barriers Strategy and

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2 OVERCOMING THE LIMITATIONS OF SLO

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adjustment, are among the technolog

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On January 14, 1829, Simpson’s on

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With increasing life expectancy, en

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Table 2.2 Treatments steps recommen

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In table 2.3, WHO guideline values

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2.5 The Slow Sand Filtration Proces

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When the particles are very close t

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in which p 0 is the clean media por

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Yao et al (1971) related the remova

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compensate for the increase in the

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can be applied, but intermittent op

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Table 2.4 Comparison of design crit

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Although accepted as indirect indic

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50% when the temperature falls from

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Figure 2.9 Flow diagram of the wate

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ut higher running costs, since more

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Headloss and flow control. Final he

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Figure 2.13 Influence of flow condi

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Operation and maintenance (O & M).

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in parallel (Galvis, 1983; Smet et

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cleaning simple, DyGF should behave

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case of Dortmund (Germany), the HGF

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Table 2.9 Data about three experien

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Some points of discussion about HGF

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and 600-800 NTU) and different filt

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the HGF units of Aesch (see table 2

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in spite of the low removal efficie

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order to overcome the water quality

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full-scale units. In this research,

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3 MULTISTAGE FILTRATION STUDIES WIT

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in the case of UGFL. Initially, it

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• Bigger and better-instrumented

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l Figure 3.7 Plan view of Cinara's

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The present research work was divid

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Table 3.1. Design parameters, grave

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Figure 3.9. Piezometer distribution

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were used to collect samples for DO

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were poured into a funnel using fil

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H 0 : H a : Treatment levels workin

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3.2 Results and Specific Discussion

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3.2.2 Dynamic gravel filtration (Dy

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Mean faecal coliform removal effici

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Table 3.10 Comparative analysis of

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DyGF-A had flow reductions in the r

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The experimental data used to produ

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Previous observations were further

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ates (figure 3.17 B). However, at t

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Longer “initial-ripening” perio

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Table 3.17. Descriptive statistics

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100 Filtration rate = 0.3 mh -1 100

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After the present experience, faeca

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nature of the organic matter and th

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Table 3.24 Comparative analyses of

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3.2.4.3. Filtration run lengths and

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deep bed filter (data not included

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and operational considerations Pard

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than in sand samples from other SSF

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Step dose tracer tests were made at

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for HGFS and from 3 to 5 for HGF. T

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Constant and declining filtration r

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The efficiency levels summarised be

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Surface area of CGF and SSF units.

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community based organisations and l

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systems. All these systems were fed

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Parts of the suburban settlements o

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Figure 4.2. Layout of Retiro MSF pl

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Traditionally, in the WS&S of Colom

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Photo 4.10. Partial cleaning activi

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Figure 4.3 Location of full-scale M

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4.4.1.3 Main characteristics of mul

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Figure 4.4 Layout of Restrepo MSF p

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Figure 4.6 Layout of Javeriana MSF

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Figure 4.9 Layout of Cañasgordas M

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Figure 4.11. Layout of Ceylan MSF p

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Table 4.4 Descriptive statistics fo

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Water sources in the coffee region

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Filterability results seem to under

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Table 4.8 Mean removal efficiencies

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The length of this ripening period

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in Peru (Pardon, 1989) and Colombia

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Photo 4.24 Drainage facilities in u

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the Cauca Valley. This is not the c

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Pardon (1989) reports similar evide

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5. COST OF MULTI-STAGE FILTRATION P

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ecame formally established as WS en

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Models for assessing construction q

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MSF system can then be calculated o

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• Page 206 and 207: Table 5.8. Annual labour costs due
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• Page 210 and 211: systems. The differences between MS
• Page 212 and 213: guideline for colour is < 15 PCU (W
• Page 214 and 215: Table 6.1. Individual (at each trea
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• Page 218 and 219: As shown in tables 6.1 and 6.3, col
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• Page 222 and 223: Table 6.4. An example of identifica
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• Page 230 and 231: The selection of MSF alternatives i
• Page 232 and 233: scouring and transporting away prev
• Page 234 and 235: REFERENCES ABNT, (1989) NB-592 Proj
• Page 236 and 237: Craun, G.F., Bull, R.J., Clark, R.M
• Page 238 and 239: Drinking Water Disinfection, ed. by
• Page 240 and 241: Huisman, L. (1989) Plain Sedimentat
• Page 242 and 243: Mendenhall, W. and Sincich, T. (199
• Page 244 and 245: Ridley, J.E. (1967) Experience in t
• Page 246 and 247: Visscher, J.T. and Galvis, G. (1992
• Page 248 and 249: ANNEXES Annex 1: Accessories for Mu
• Page 250 and 251: aw water. The red colour is used fo
• Page 252 and 253: Annex 2: Design of Manifolds Manifo
• Page 256 and 257: R 1 = (total orifice area / lateral
• Page 258 and 259: 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00
• Page 260 and 261: Table A.4-2 General notation for th
• Page 262 and 263: Box A4-3. Sum of Square Error (SSE)
• Page 264 and 265: Annex 5: Residence times in coarse
• Page 266 and 267: Table A5-1 Percentage of incoming w
• Page 268 and 269: Annex 6 Number and Type of Valves N
• Page 270: Table A7-1. Descriptive statistics
• Page 274 and 275: Tables A7-3 Removal efficiencies of
• Page 276 and 277: Tables A7-5 Removal efficiencies of
• Page 278 and 279: Construction quantities of DyGF com
• Page 280: Net present value (US\$) of MSF and
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