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Water treatment

in series was begun in

in series was begun in 1848 by a company supplying a suburb of Glasgow, Scotland (Baker, 1981). A. Puech initially, and later with his engineer and successor, H. Chabal, developed the Puech-Chabal system of filtration (figure 2.21). In this system the raw water first passes through a set of three or more basins with coarse-graded gravel, which varies in size from 25 mm in the first basin to smaller sizes in each succeeding basin. Filtration rate also decreases from basin to basin (Ellms, 1928). The first of these systems was completed in 1899 to treat a part of the water supply of Paris. This plant had initially three coarse media filters (CMF) of gravel and a final conventional SSF. The plant was located at Ivry on the Seine River and treated 231 ls -1 (833 m 3 h -1 ) of water from a settling reservoir. By 1935 the capacity became 3.47 m 3 s -1 (12,500 m 3 h -1 ), the reservoir had been converted into coarse filters, and "prefilters" had been inserted ahead of SSF. Air-and -water wash had been provided for all the filtration units but for the SSF (Baker, 1981). By 1935 around 125 of this type of plants had been built in France. They were also built in other European countries, including England, Italy, and Spain. Gradually the Puech-Chabal system became a succession of decreasingly rapid filters followed by SSF (Baker, 1981). Figure 2.21 Puech-Chabal system of filtration (adapted from Ellms, 1928; and Baker, 1981) Downflow gravel filtration and SSF. The current application of DGFS in combination with SSF is similar to the Puech-Chabal filtration system as initially applied in Paris. More recently, DGFS systems usually consist also of three compartments hydraulically independent and working in series (figure 2.10), all with the same filtration rate (around 0.3 to 1.2 mh -1 ). Due to structural and cleaning limitations, DGF has relatively small filter bed length per compartment, usually

and 600-800 NTU) and different filtration rates (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mh -1 ). Each range/filtration rate experiment ran for a week so the whole experiment ran for 16 weeks. The filters were cleaned every week. The results (figure 2.22) show that for turbidities about 50 NTU the removal efficiencies were about 55% for the lowest rate (0.1 mh -1 ) and 45% for the highest (0.8 mh -1 ). With turbidities around 200 to 300 NTU the efficiencies were around 90% for the lowest rate and 70% for the highest. Unexpectedly, the efficiencies became lower for the turbidities around 700 NTU. This was explained by the destabilisation of filter deposits due to the heavy loads of suspended material in the influent water (Pardón, 1989; Wolters et al, 1989). Based on these experiments, and aiming for a coarse filtered effluent 300 92 > 24 59

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