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Water treatment

The first phase of the

The first phase of the station, including MSF pilot systems, physicochemical laboratory, and some office facilities, was commissioned in 1989. The second phase was commissioned in 1991 including microbiological laboratory, documentation unit, some teaching facilities, and working areas for research or technical attachments of students or professionals from other universities or water sector institutions. The third phase was commissioned in 1997 including infrastructure for studies on rapid filtration, which is still being developed. The fourth and final phase is still to be built. 3.1.4 Multistage filtration pilot system Cauca River water is pumped from a lateral intake to the inlet structure of the water treatment plant of EMCALI built in Puerto Mallarino. From this inlet structure, raw water is taken by gravity as the influent of the MSF pilot system tested in this study. The MSF pilot system comprised three main filtration treatment stages through which water flows by gravity. The 1 st stage consisted of three DyGF units working in parallel and processing raw water from a constant head feeder tank. The 2 nd stage consisted of five lines of CGF working in parallel and processing integrated water (the mixed effluent from the three dynamic filters) previously conditioned by the DyGF units. Each CGF line includes a slow sand filter as the 3 rd stage. This is outlined in figure 3.8. Figure 3.8 Schematic flow diagram of the multistage filtration (MSF) pilot system. 3.1.5 Research phases and periods During part of 1990 the MSF pilot systems were tested and adjusted, the main computerised database for this research work was designed, and the research team was gradually established. The tests covered by the present research work started in 1991 and because of the expected variations in the raw water quality from the Cauca River, close to six months test periods were planned, to include the impact of dry and rainy weather in each run. 76

The present research work was divided in two main phases. The 1 st phase was focussed on studying the behaviour of the different CGF alternatives independently and in series with SSF units working with different filtration velocities. Operation and monitoring of the CGF alternatives was planned to allow comparative analyses between them. The 1 st phase covered four research periods; each one characterised mainly by the same filtration rates in all CGF alternatives included as the 2 nd stage of treatment in the MSF pilot system. The tested velocities in these treatment stage were 0.3 mh -1 for Period I (January - July, 1991); 0.45 mh -1 for Period II (July, 1991 - January, 1992); 0.6 mh -1 for Period III (January - July, 1992); and 0.75 mh -1 for Period IV (July, 1992 - April, 1993). Based on the experience with the 1 st phase, additional specific studies were developed during the 2 nd phase to contribute to the understanding and to improve the selection and design criteria of the MSF alternatives. The following section presents information about the MSF pilot system as used during the 1 st phase. After presenting and discussing the results of this phase, information about the studies developed during the 2 nd phase is included. Design criteria and filtration velocities of the MSF system. 1991-1993. DyGF units were built in brickwork. DyGF units A and B are 0.70 m high and 0.80 m wide, and 3.10 m long including the inlet and outlet structures. DyGF-C is 0.70 m high, 0.50 m wide, and 2.10 m long including the inlet and outlet structures. All the units were packed with a stratified bed of three layers of gravel, the finest at the top and the coarsest at the bottom. All the units had a perforated PVC pipe at the bottom to collect the filtered water during the filtration runs or the drainage water during hydraulic cleaning procedures. (see photo 3.3) The 2 nd treatment stage comprised five lines of CGF. Both UGFS (upflow gravel filtration in series) and DGFS (downflow gravel filtration in series) had three vertical flow steps which were hydraulically independent. UGFL (upflow gravel filtration in layers) had one upflow step. Two types of HGF (horizontal flow gravel filtration) were included, each with three hydraulically dependent compartments, divided by perforated walls to facilitate flow distribution and to prevent gravel intermixing. One of the HGF lines was built to the design criteria proposed by Wegelin (1986). The other HGF line was modified (MHGF) to include a drainage system to facilitate periodic hydraulic cleaning, and comprised shorter gravel compartments to bring the theoretical hydraulic time within the same range as the UGFS and DGFS lines, thus making these systems comparable. (see photo 3.4) All the steps in the UGFS, UGFL, DGFS lines and the SSF units were made of ferro-cement and were circular in shape with 2 m diameter and 2 m height. HGF was built in brickwork 1.55 m high, 1.30 m wide, and 8.14 m long, including the inlet and outlet structure. MHGF had the same dimensions as the HGF but 5.40 m length. Table 3.1 summarises data for the whole MSF pilot system including filter surface areas, gravel bed depths, gravel sizes, and filtration rates to be changed during the testing periods. Filtration rates for the DyGF units correspond to the planned values at the beginning of each filtration run, before they start to decline due to the gradual or fast clogging of the gravel media. 77

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