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8 months ago

galvis

Water treatment

DyGF C DyGF B to DGFS to

DyGF C DyGF B to DGFS to HGF Raw Water to MHGF to UGFL 05 01 to UGFS DyGF A Photo 3.3 DyGF pilot units working in parallel. The points 01 and 05 are the constant head tanks for raw water and integrated water respectively. Flow channels with V- shaped weirs are shown between the DyGF units. 1.4 2.2 3.4 4.4 5.4 1.2 1.3 (*) 5.3 5.2 1.1 2.1 3.1 4.1 (*) 5.1 (*) This CGF line was not used in the present study. Photo 3.4 UGFS, UGFL, MHGF, HGF, and DGFS CGF lines (from left to the right). Each CGF line works in series with an SSF unit (at the end of the lines). 78

Table 3.1. Design parameters, gravel and sand bed specifications, and drainage facilities of the MSF pilot system. Puerto Mallarino, 1991 - 1993. Characteristic Dynamic Gravel Filters Coarse Gravel Filters SSF DyGF A DyGF B DyGF C UGFS 1 UGFS 2 UGFS 3 UGFL MHGF 1 MHGF 2 MHGF 3 HGF 1 HGF 2 HGF 3 DGFS 1 DGFS 2 DGFS (1) 3 Filter beds • Cross sectional area (m 2 ) 2.00 2.00 0.75 3.14 3.14 1.57 1.57 3.14 3.14 79 • Depth (Along the flow m.) - Total 0.60 0.60 0.60 1.55 1.55 1.55 1.55 2.10 1.15 1.15 3.27 2.32 1.55 1.55 1.55 1.55 1.00 - Useful Bed per Unit (m) (2) 0.6 1.55 1.40 1.45 1.55 2.10 1.15 1.15 3.27 2.32 1.55 1.55 1.40 1.45 1.00 - Total useful bed per treatment stage (m) 0.6 4.40 1.55 4.40 7.14 4.40 1.00 • Size gravel length (m) per size range (mm) (3) 19 - 25 mm 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.15 (4) 0.30 0.30 0.15(4) 13 - 19 mm 0.20 0.20 0.20 1.25 0.15 0.10(4) 0.30 2.06 3.27 1.25 0.15 0.10(4) 6 –13 mm 0.20 0.20 0.20 1.25 0.10 0.30 1.14 0.10 2.32 1.25 0.10 3 - 6 mm 0.675 0.30 0.60 1.00 0.675 0.15 1.6 - 3 mm 0.675 0.35 0.55 0.55 0.675 - Initial sand depth (cm)(5) 1.00 - Minimum sand depth (m) 0.30 Drainage (Hydraulic cleaning) facilities: Manifolds and drainage valves (6) and (7) - Manifold and drainage valve (∅in m) 0.076 0.076 0.076 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 - Height (m) (8) 0.0 1.40 1.00 0.90 1.30 0.90 1.00 1.40 0.90 0.90 0.50 Test periods (Dates) Filtration rate (mh -1 ) (9) - I (01-01-91; 14-07-91) 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.30 0.10 - II (15-07-91; 21-01-92) 2.0 1.5 3.0 0.45 0.10 - III (22-01-92; 12-07-92) 2.0 1.5 3.0 0.60 0.15 - IV (13-07-92; 07-02-93) 2.0 1.8 3.5 0.75 0.15 (1) SSF are with inlet control (2) These values do not include the length of the supporting filtering layers (see note 4) (3) The gravel layers making up the filter beds decrease in size in the direction of the flow, except for DyGF and DGFS units (4) The main role of these layers, placed before finer gravel layers in the flow direction, is to support the “ useful” gravel layers (5) The sand bed had an effective diameter D 10 =0,2 mm., and non-uniformity coefficient Cu=1,5 (6) Characteristics of manifolds: in DyGF units pipes φ 0.05 m with orifices of φ 12.7 mm every 0.07 m. In CGF, pipes φ 0.075 m with orifices of φ 10 mm every 0.1 m. (7) The HGF line did not include facilities for hydraulic cleaning procedures (8) Static head measured from the bottom of the units to the position of the plugs or fast opening valves. The plugs were used only with DyGF units and were placed at the bottom level of them. (9) Initial filtration rates in DyGF units. 79

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