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STEPHEN J. CROTHERS A Critical Analysis of LIGO's Recent Detection of Gravitational Waves Caused by Merging Black Holes Authors: Stephen J. Crothers The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration have announced that on 14 September 2015, LIGO detected an Einstein gravitational wave directly for the first time, with the first observation of a binary black hole merger. The announcement was made with much media attention. Not so long ago similar media excitement surrounded the announcement by the BICEP2 Team of detection of primordial gravitational waves imprinted in B-mode polarisations of a Cosmic Microwave Background, which proved to be naught. According to the LIGO and Virgo Collaborations, the gravitational wave LIGO allegedly detected was generated by two merging black holes, one of ~29 solar masses, the other of ~36 solar masses, at a distance of some 1.3 billion light years. The insurmountable problem for the credibility of LIGO's claims is the questionable character of the theoretical assumptions upon which they are based. In this paper various arguments are presented according to which the basic theoretical assumptions, and the consequential claims of detecting gravitational waves, are proven false. The apparent detection by the LIGO-Virgo Collaborations is not related to gravitational waves or to the collision and merger of black holes. Hadronic Journal Vol. 39, 2016 116

WOLFGANG W. ENGELHARDT Open Letter To The Nobel Committee For Physics 2016 Published on July 1, 2016 Written by Wolfgang Engelhardt To Professor Olle Inganäs (chaiman), Dear Professor Inganäs, On Feb. 11, 2016 the LIGO-team published the paper PRL 116, 061102 (2016): Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger. The experimental proof for the existence of a gravitational wave was announced: Mirrors of 40 kg had been displaced by 10-18 m during fractions of a second as measured with a Michelson-interferometer with 4 km arm length resulting in a strain of 10-21. Scaling up these data by a factor of 1013 a relative accuracy must have been achieved by a hair’s breadth (10 microns) in relation to the distance to the next fixed star (4 light-years). This is by a factor of 1 Million better than the relative Mössbauer accuracy of 10-15 obtained so far. Indeed, Rudolf Mössbauer was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1961 for this achievement. In order to substantiate this extraordinary claim, it is absolutely necessary to demonstrate experimentally LIGO’s ability to measure a displacement of 10-18 m that is one thousandth of a proton radius. The reader is assured that the calibration of the system can be achieved by moving the mirrors by such a tiny distance with radiation pressure: “The detector output is calibrated in strain by measuring its response to test mass motion induced by photon pressure from a modulated calibration laser beam [63].” Ref. [63] is an unpublished e-print describing the calibration method by radiation pressure. Formula (10) gives the calculable connection between displacement and the radiation power of an auxiliary laser shining on the mirror. Unfortunately no data are given as to the laser power, wave form, number of oscillations in order to compare with the documented effect that was exerted on the mirrors by the wave GW150914, as displayed in the “discovery paper”. 117

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