32 ON TERRITORIAL METABOLISM most important drivers of any inclusive change that might happen. Unless they are empowered, they are ill-fated to become the victims of urban development decisions that happen beyond their reach. In urban redevelopment processes on this scale (fifteen hectares of existing industries, containing nine hectares devoted to the car trade industry), in which a gap will exist between the functions of actors who are leaving and those who will occupy the newly vacated spaces, the design of the transition becomes decisive for a successful transformation. And this is true regardless of the reasons for the gap between the new and old uses (e.g., real estate cycles, mismatch between offer and demand, filtering processes, disinvestment … ). Transition is about creating the tools to help move fundamental change in a more sustainable direction, with the aim of making it less disruptive than it would otherwise be and thus involving multiple actors, domains, and levels of scale (Folke, 2016). And a fair transition is one that makes it possible for most of the actual actors (companies, inhabitants, policy makers, and the more-than-human world we inhabit) to participate in both the costs and the benefits involved in such change. This enables actual residents to climb the economic ladder and to adapt to the rising rents and services that will come to characterize the transformed neighborhood. The principal way to achieve this is to generate new products that will result in new markets and labor opportunities other than wage labor (Callon, 2016). The introduction of new products will possibly respond to patterns of production and consumption that reflect the values and beliefs of a holistic, progressive, and sustainable world view, thus preventing prices from mediating our relation to the biosphere and encouraging local development through “de-manufacturing” and reuse or recycling (Gibbs et al., 2005). This is as far as we got in the study prepared by our office, 1010. At that time, the pressing issue was how to manage such a transition: Who would take the lead? Who would facilitate and monitor the process of change? Who would actually attend to the transformation of Heyvaert? With what means (financial, human, etc.)? And within which governance settings? ATELIER BRUSSELS – THE PRODUCTIVE METROPOLIS Because the research conducted by the consortium .FABRIC – Circle Economy – LoUIse Lab ULB Faculty of Architecture relied on a one-to-one dialogue with actors busy on the field (companies, industries, organizations …), it helped to open new perspectives. It made it possible (1) to gain first-hand knowledge about flows and their management by specific industries and actors/entrepreneurs; and (2) to get to know the diversity of economic approaches within cities other than the capital-centric models we are used to. As for the Heyvaert area in particular, the key findings pointed towards the fact that: - supply chains between producers and consumers are normally “long” for every product with the exception of some specific forms of (food) waste; - most remainders from local production and consumption processes are hardly ever reused or recycled within the Brussels region, with Flanders being one of its important recipients (and users). While surveying the streets of Heyvaert and during our field interviews, we additionally witnessed that many goods and services were exchanged in non-typical or alternative markets (e.g., informal markets on the street, co-op exchanges, with
M M 33 Towards a Fair Transition in Heyvaert (Brussels) In the car trading sector In the household appliance sector In the food and market sector In the construction sector In human ressources sector During the week-end Animal skin Metal components Food Market leftovers Car components - Garage owners 4 000 Tons/year of Animal waste and skins Non food market leftovers Bus to schools Food- Shopping metal recycling People (mobility index 89%) Cars Material from building demolition Home Garage owners 55% 48% 13% of youth unemployment (18-24 years old) of population is of foreign origin of single parent household appliances and furnitures Textiles (carpets...) metro station Gare de l’ouest Industrial buildings STIB deposit for metal parts Recy K waste recycling metro station Delacroix 150 000 Car exported/year (Filled up with home appliance) Erasmus school Fab lab Slaughterhouse Market Heyveart neighborhood hosting 37 car related companies, creating 500indirect jobs and 400 direct jobs Porte Ninove Fig. 4: Simplified section of Heyvaert with an indication of major flows and stocks. In addition to shipping these secondhand cars for reuse in the global South (Claudel & Scohier, 2014), it is common practice to fill them with secondhand mattresses, refrigerators, and other electronic equipment such as TV screens and mobile phones (Rosenfeld, 2013). Regarding the slaughterhouse, the data on waste is based on Destrycker (2015) and on our own research. From all animal waste, including blood, fat, bones, etc. (4,000 tons/year), 80% is sold to RENDAC, a brand of DARLING INGREDIENTS INC. that converts inedible animal leftovers into usable and specialty ingredients that are sold to the pharmaceutical, food, feed, fuel, biomass, and fertilizer industries worldwide. Animal skin is processed separately by GEEROMS CUIRS, a local enterprise that exports the cattle and sheep hides and pig and goat skin to Italy and Turkey, where they are turned into leather and re-imported. Market leftovers (around 1,000 tons of organic waste/year) are partly transported to Quevy for waste2energy, while most of it is normally collected by the market itself and donated to individuals or nonprofit organizations, 1010 architecture urbanism (based on .FABRIC, ULB, Circle Economy), 2017.