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259 ENI PARK, CHANGING PORTO MARGHERA Alberto Dal Bo’, Alessio Milan, Thomas Pesce, and Leandro Varillas Sànchez Studio Maria Chiara Tosi and Luca Nicoletto (IUAV) SOME FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS The area we investigated is located in the Venetian Lagoon near the historical center of Venice and includes the industrial areas of Porto Marghera and the city of Mestre. The initial phase of the design process involves the understanding and representation of this complex territory considered as a metabolic system. The analysis themes have been grouped into four main research areas: the water system, the soil layers, the flow networks, and the urban heritage. Porto Marghera, one of the largest industrial hubs in Europe, covers an area of more than 2,000 hectares, of which approximately 1,400 are occupied by industrial, commercial, and tertiary activities and about 350 are occupied by canals and water basins. Because of its industrial character, it has few green areas. It is a grey zone, an enclave inside the lagoon territory, and most parts of the area have been inaccessible and unsuited for public use for decades. There is a significant presence of water in the territory. Over the years, several canals have been excavated to service harbor activities, but now these are only occasionally used. The hydrographic network mixes natural and artificial arteries. Impermeable soils are located throughout the industrial zone, while in the north there are seventy-four reclaimed hectares of Park San Giuliano. Over the years, industrial activities have left many traces of pollutants in the soil and in the water. The high number of chemical activities in the area have contaminated the soil, leaving measureable amounts of zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, copper, xylene, benzene, hydrocarbons, dioxins, and furans. The analysis of flows has focused on the Regional Road 11 linking the mainland with Venice. Accessibility and crossing sites are difficult for users who get around by both public and private transportation. This condition is caused by the many flows that cross the Liberty Bridge, the only road and rail link connecting the historic center of Venice to the mainland. In addition, the difficulty of crossing this barrier also has implications for slower forms of mobility: bicycle-pedestrian paths are fragmented, isolated, and lacking in connections to the transportation network. These issues make the paths unworkable and increase the constant risk of accidents. Cyclists and pedestrians are forced to travel along trails of busy roads and without protected paths. Subway crossings are insecure and often become places of social degradation because of their isolation and inadequate lighting. Furthermore, over the years industrial production in the area has declined, leaving numerous abandoned areas and artefacts of industrial archaeology to be preserved.